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Webb, C.J.; Sykes, W.R.; Garnock-Jones, P.J. 1988: Flora of New Zealand. Vol. IV. Naturalised Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Dicotyledons. Botany Division DSIR, Christchurch.

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Webb, C.J.; Sykes, W.R.; Garnock-Jones, P.J. 1988: Flora of New Zealand. Vol. IV. Naturalised Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Dicotyledons. Botany Division DSIR, Christchurch.
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Acetosa sagittata (Thunb.) L.A.S.Johnson & B.G.Briggs
Atriplex australasica sensu early New Zealand Botanists
Carpobrotus edulis (L.) N.E.Br. (1926) × Disphyma australe (W.T.Aiton) N.E.Br.
Caucalis anthriscus sensu New Zealand Botanists
Geranium microphyllum var. discolor G.Simpson & J.S.Thomson
Geranium microphyllum var. obtusatum G.Simpson & J.S.Thomson
Helichrysum ×selago (Hook.f.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Kirk
Hypericum hookerianum sensu New Zealand Botanists
Madia sativa var. congesta Torr. & A.Gray
Myosotis scorpioides var. strigulosa (Reichb.) Mert. & Koch
Oxalis corniculata L. subsp. corniculata var. corniculata
Oxalis corniculata var. crassifolia (A.Cunn.) Hook.f.
Pilosella praealta (Vill. ex Cochn.) F.Schultz & Sch.Bip.
Silene gallica var. quinquevulnera (L.) W.D.J.Koch
Silene macrocarpa (Boiss. & Reut.) E.H.L.Krause
Solanum capsicastrum sensu New Zealand Botanists

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Evergreen, resinous, conic or pyramidal trees, usually with smooth bark and whorled branches. Short shoots 0. Buds very variable in shape, generally resinous. Lvs solitary, spirally arranged, linear or linear-oblong, usually ± 2-ranked and often arranged pectinately (except on young erect shoots), leaving a flat circular scar (hence older shoots ± smooth), flattened, generally dark green above and with broad white to glaucous-grey stomatal bands below, less often both sides stomatiferous and glaucous-grey; resin ducts 2, marginal (just below surface) or median. ♂ strobili (cones) situated in upper lf axils on underside of shoots, catkin-like, yellow to red. ♀ cones terminal, erect, usually purple, ripening in first year; ovuliferous scales rather thin; ovules 2 to each scale. Mature cone often dark purple, with bract scales included or exserted, disintegrating; axis persistent. Seed with large wing.
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Perennial shrub to c. 3 m high, sometimes suckering to form thickets. Stems sparsely hairy with short stellate hairs and scattered short simple hairs, becoming ± glabrous. Lvs densely clothed in fine stellate hairs below, ± glabrous to moderately hairy with simple and stellate hairs above, lighter green below, broadly ovate to suborbicular, cordate at base, usually 3-(5)-lobed to 1/4-1/2 radius, crenate or serrate, 6-15-(18) cm long; petioles 2-20 cm long; stipules narrow-oblong to lanceolate, 6-12 mm long, deciduous. Fls axillary, usually solitary or sometimes 2-3 in fascicles; fruiting pedicels up to 20 cm long; calyx shallowly campanulate; calyx teeth much > tube, triangular, acuminate, densely clothed in stellate hairs, ± erect at fruiting; petals yellow to orange or scarlet, often with darker veins, 30-60 mm long. Cells c. 10 per fr., covered in stellate hairs, and with longer stellate hairs along the ridged back; dorsal apical angle awnless. Seeds brown, hairy, particularly on back, c. 3 mm diam.
Perennial shrub to 1-(2) m high. Stems densely clothed in stellate hairs and with long erect simple hairs at least above. Lvs densely clothed in fine stellate hairs, velvety to touch, lighter green below, broadly ovate, acute to acuminate, cordate to almost sagittate at base, not lobed, irregularly serrate, 4-15 cm long; petioles 2-12 cm long; stipules oblong, 5-15 mm long, often deciduous. Fls axillary and solitary or 2-4 (rarely more) in irregular axillary infls; fruiting peduncles 2-7 cm long; calyx shallowly campanulate; calyx teeth much > tube, ovate-triangular, acute to acuminate, densely clothed in stellate hairs, somewhat recurved at fruiting; petals orange-yellow, 15-20 mm long. Cells c. 10 per fr., covered in fine stellate hairs and with long stellate hairs particularly along the ridged back; dorsal apical angle shortly awned. Seeds brown, hairy, particularly on back, 2-3 mm diam.
Annual to perennial herbs, shrubs, or trees. Lvs entire or toothed, lobed or not. Fls usually solitary and axillary or in axillary infls, rarely terminal; epicalyx 0; calyx evenly 5-(6)-toothed; petals spreading or tubular, usually obtuse. Style branches as many as loculi, filiform to clavate. Fr. of usually numerous, 3-9-seeded, often awned cells, arranged in a single flat whorl and dehiscing usually without separating from the central axis.
Erect annual herb, 0.3-1-(1.5) m high. Stems densely hairy with short erect simple hairs and stellate hairs of equal length above, but mostly fine stellate hairs below, becoming somewhat woody at base. Lvs densely clothed in fine stellate hairs, velvety to touch, slightly lighter green below, broadly ovate to suborbicular, acuminate, cordate to almost sagittate at base, not lobed, serrate, 3-15 cm long; petioles 2-15 cm long; stipules linear, c. 10 mm long, deciduous. Fls axillary and solitary or in irregular axillary infls; fruiting pedicels 1-15 cm long; calyx shallowly campanulate; calyx teeth much > tube, ovate-triangular, acute to acuminate, densely clothed in stellate hairs, ± unchanged at fruiting; petals yellow, 7-13 mm long. Cells c. 13 per fr., covered in fine stellate hairs and with long stellate hairs particularly along the ridged back; dorsal apical angle with a long slender awn. Seeds brown, hairy, c. 3 mm diam.
Herbaceous perennial, forming clonal clumps, glabrate to pilose throughout; stems erect, 15-80 cm high. Lvs narrowly obovate to oblanceolate, (3.5)-8-15-(22) cm long, imparipinnate; leaflets in 8-13 pairs, ± sessile, ovate to oblong, up to 15-(25) mm long, pilose to glabrate above and densely pilose below; teeth serrate, up to 15-(18), 1/2-3/4 to midrib. Infl. spicate, branched or not, interrupted at fruiting. Sepals 5, 1-2.5 mm long, sparsely pilose. Stamens 3-7; anthers purple. Styles 1-(2), white. Fr. 20-70, ovoid, c. 3 × 2 mm, scarcely ridged, glabrous or pilose; spines 12-55, over whole surface, ± equal and lacking a thickened conic base, 1-2-(3) mm long, red, barbed at tip.
Stems 15-35-(60) cm high, 1.5-3 mm diam. Infl. not branched. Stamens 4-5. Fr. glabrous, with 12-55 spines.
Stems 20-60-(80) cm high, 2-4 mm diam. Infl. either branched near base or bearing fascicles of fls in axils of upper lvs. Stamens 5-7. Fr. glabrous, with 25-35 spines.
Stems 15-50-(60) cm high, 1.5-3 mm diam. Infl. not branched. Stamens 3-5. Fr. densely clothed in spreading pilose hairs, with 15-50 spines.
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Perennial herbs or dwarf shrubs, often prostrate and forming large mats. Lvs imparipinnate; leaflets toothed; stipules adnate to petiole, persistent. Infl. terminal or axillary, capitate or spicate. Fls 3-5-merous, small, ☿ or ♀. Hypanthium deeply concave, contracted at mouth. Epicalyx 0. Calyx of 3-5 sepals. Petals 0. Stamens 1-10. Ovary superior, surrounded by the hypanthium. Styles 1-2. Ovules 1-2. Fr. of 1-2 achenes enclosed in dry hypanthium bearing 4 or more, often barbed, spines, or without spines.
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Mainly herbs, sometimes shrubs or vines. Lvs opposite, simple, exstipulate, often with cystoliths. Fls mostly in spikes, racemes, or dense heads (glomerules), occasionally solitary. Bracts often conspicuous and coloured. Calyx 4-5-lobed; lobes imbricate or valvate, occasionally much reduced. Corolla gamopetalous, zygomorphic, (1)-2-lipped; lobes convolute or imbricate in bud. Stamens 4 and didynamous, or 2, inserted on corolla. Ovary superior, sessile on a disc, 2-locular; ovules 2 or more per loculus. Fr. a capsule, mainly dehiscing from apex downwards; valves recurved and parting from central axis. Seeds mostly with indurated funicles which forcibly eject the seeds, usually non-endospermic.
Perennial herbs or shrubs. Stems simple, erect. Lvs mostly radical, pinnatifid to pinnatisect; margins sometimes spiny. Fls strongly zygomorphic, arranged in dense spike-like infls. Bracts large, spinose-dentate; bracteoles entire. Calyx 4-lobed; upper and lower lobes larger, sometimes spine-tipped; lateral lobes very small. Corolla 1-lipped (only lower lip present); lip 3-5-lobed; tube short. Stamens 4, included; filaments thick and prominent; anthers fused in pairs, 1-celled, often white-villous. Ovules 2 per cell. Style shortly 2-lobed. Capsule oblong or ovoid, 4-seeded.
Perennial herb with thick roots. Stems to c. 120 cm high, stout. Petiole usually 10-50 cm long in radical lvs, 2-5 cm long in cauline lvs. Lamina oblong to ovate-oblong or broadly ovate, to c. 50 × 30 cm, pinnatifid to pinnatisect, sometimes with 1-2 distinct basal leaflets; lobes or leaflets dentate (spinose-dentate in cauline lvs), glabrous or puberulent beneath on the veins, dark glossy green above. Bracts 3-4 cm long, ovate or broad-ovate, spinose-dentate; main veins raised, purplish. Calyx 3.5-5 cm long (uppermost and lowermost lobes); lobes entire, purplish towards apex. Corolla 4-5.5 cm long, whitish or pale pink with purple or brownish veins; lobes broad and rounded. Filaments stout, c. 2.5 cm × 2.5 mm, often curved; anthers villous on ventral side. Capsule 3-4 cm long, oblong-ovoid, shining, beaked. Seed 1-1.3 cm wide, flattened.
Lvs palmately lobed or toothed, or if pinnate not more than 7-foliolate; samaras with wing always confined to upper side.
Dioecious tree to c. 17 m high, deciduous, very widespreading; trunk becoming stout and gnarled. Shoots glaucous, glabrous. Lvs compound; leaflets 3-5-(7); petioles to 12 cm long. Leaflets very variable in shape and size, petiolulate or sessile; terminal leaflet usually to 15 × 8 cm, ovate; lateral leaflets often lanceolate-ovate, remaining hairy on veins below and sometimes on midrib above, coarsely crenate-serrate, sometimes lobulate; apex acute to acuminate. Fls appearing before lvs. ♂ infl. corymbose; pedicels long, filamentous, hairy, pendulous, pinkish. Sepals and petals 0.5-1 mm long, hairy or nearly glabrous. Stamens prominently exserted; filaments very short; anthers 2-4 mm long. ♀ infl. a pendulous raceme; pedicels very slender. Samara wings c. 2.5 cm long, broad, ± incurved, diverging at an acute angle. Seed c. 1.5 cm long, narrow.
Monoecious, deciduous tree to 20 m high with smooth grey bark. Shoots green, glabrous. Buds large; inner scales to 5 cm long, pinkish. Petiole slender, to c. 15 cm long, usually reddish. Lamina simple, 5-lobed to c. 1/2 way on mature trees, mostly 8-14 × 10-20 cm, glaucescent or sometimes green below, becoming glabrous or with hairs confined to main vein axils below; lobes ovate, coarsely and irregularly crenate-serrate or lobulate; lf base subcordate or cordate. Panicles 5-15 cm long (including main stem), pendulous, appearing with the lvs; pedicels glabrous or hairy. Fls dense, numerous; sepals and petals 2-4 mm long, oblong, green. Stamens (6)-8-(10), exserted; filaments hairy towards base; anthers c. 1 mm long. Ovary white-villous. Samara wings 2-4 cm long, often reddish, usually spreading at a broadly obtuse angle, sometimes slightly incurved. Seed 0.5-1 cm long.
Monoecious or more rarely dioecious, usually deciduous trees or shrubs. Lvs opposite, exstipulate, simple, usually palmately toothed or lobed, less commonly pinnately compound with up to 15 leaflets. Fls actinomorphic, small, hypogynous or perigynous, arranged in fascicles, corymbs, racemes or panicles. Sepals 4-5. Petals usually 4-5, sometimes 0. Stamens (4)-8-(10), inserted on or inside the usually well-developed disc. Ovary superior, 2-celled, compressed, with septum along the short axis; ovules 2 in each cell; styles 2, free or united below. Fr. schizocarpic, splitting into 2 samaras; wing on upper side or occasionally extending round the seed. Seed non-endospermic; cotyledons flat or plicate, often green.
Perennial herbs, often with stout woody rootstock. Lvs simple and entire to 3-4-pinnate or pinnatisect, alternate. Capitula in corymbs, or rarely solitary, terminal, usually pedunculate, rarely shortly so; involucral bracts in several rows, with membranous margins. Receptacle flat or convex; scales present. Outer florets ♀, ligulate, yellow, white or pink; inner florets ☿; corolla tube compressed. Achenes all similar, compressed, glabrous, smooth, not or slightly winged at edges; pappus 0.
Strongly scented, rhizomatous herb, with short non-flowering rosettes often forming dense mats. Stems usually erect, sometimes ascending, up to c. 80 cm tall, ribbed and striate, hairy especially above, usually not branched except above to form infl. Basal lvs petiolate, lanceolate, moderately hairy, 2-pinnate with segments again 1-2-pinnatisect, 6-15-(44) × 1-2-(4) cm; primary leaflets in 18-30-(37) pairs; ultimate segments subulate, not all in one plane giving a feathery appearance to lf; rachis c. 1-2 mm diam., flattened, sometimes slightly winged, not toothed. Cauline lvs similar to basal, but above becoming apetiolate, less divided, smaller, and with fewer leaflet pairs. Corymbs usually ± flat-topped or slightly convex, to c. 15 cm across, with numerous, closely packed capitula. Involucral bracts glabrous to sparsely hairy, 1.5-4-(5) mm long; margin brown, hairy. Capitula (3.5)-5-10 mm diam.; ray florets 4-7; ligule and disc florets usually white, sometimes pink to deep red or purple. Achenes grey-brown, c. 2 mm long; wings narrow, pale brown.
Scented, rhizomatous herb. Stems erect, up to c. 1 m tall, angled and hairy above, slightly ribbed and ± glabrous toward base, usually not branched except above to form infl. Basal lvs 0 at anthesis. Cauline lvs apetiolate, linear, glabrous, sometimes sparsely hairy when young, simple, finely and evenly serrate and serrations again with very fine cartilaginous teeth, up to 80 × 3-5 mm, becoming smaller and more lanceolate toward infl. Corymbs convex, to c. 10 cm across, with few to numerous, loosely-packed capitula. Involucral bracts sparsely hairy, 2-4 mm long; margin brown, hairy. Capitula c. 10-15 mm diam.; ray florets 8-numerous; ligule and disc florets white. Achenes grey-brown, c. 2 mm long; wings narrow, pale brown.
Herb to c. 1 m high. Stems lax, woody at base and ribbed, densely hairy with hairs somewhat appressed. Petioles 5-20 mm long, silky, often pink. Lamina 3-9 × 2-6 cm, broadly ovate, slightly rhomboid, clothed in appressed hairs above and below, silky canescent on young parts, crenulate or crenate, attenuate at base, acute or shortly acuminate. Infl. to 15 cm long; peduncle white-villous. Fls becoming retrorse, often tinged red. Bract c. 3 mm long, ovate, long-acuminate; bracteoles slightly > bract, with broadly scarious base and a long, subulate spine above. Tepals 3-5 mm long, shining, acute, becoming pungent in fr. Fr. 2-2.5 mm long.
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Glabrous trees. Lvs opposite or nearly so, usually with many glandular dots. Infl. a terminal, much-branched, many-flowered panicle. Fls usually 2-3 in axes of each peduncle. Hypanthium produced beyond ovary; calyx lobes very short. Petals 4-5, very small, usually united to form lid or operculum, sometimes free, caducous. Stamens numerous, in more than 1 whorl, free, irregular in length, the outer short and not greatly incurved in bud, at least the inner > petals; anthers apically dehiscent (poricidal or by a short slit), versatile; lobes divergent. Ovary 2-3-celled, with few ovules; style very short. Fr. baccate, globose or nearly so; seed 1.
Tree (6-15 m high in cultivation). Lvs very aromatic when crushed; petiole usually c. 5 mm long. Lamina 4-12-(15) × 2-5-(8) cm, ovate or elliptic-ovate, coriaceous, glossy above, dotted with glands below; veins parallel and prominent below; base cuneate or narrow-cuneate; apex obtusely cuspidate or acuminate. Fls shortly pedicellate. Hypanthium (including pseudopedicel) 3-5 mm long; calyx lobes 4, deciduous. Petals 4, c. 2 mm long, forming a small calyptrum, whitish. Stamens to c. 3 mm long, whitish. Fr. subglobose to broad-oblong or obovoid, often slightly flattened, usually 1-1.7-(3) cm diam., pinkish mauve or white, with apical cavity. Seed large.
Dioecious or gynodioecious, deciduous lianes, with twining stems. Pith solid or lamellate. Lvs usually serrate, rarely entire. Fls usually in axillary cymes, sometimes solitary, cup-shaped. Petals convolute, delicate, usually white. Stamens numerous. Ovary with numerous locules. Styles numerous. Fr. a fleshy berry. Seeds numerous, embedded in pulp.
Trees or shrubs, often climbing, dioecious or gynodioecious. Lvs alternate, exstipulate, simple. Fls usually in axillary cymes or fascicles, actinomorphic. Sepals (4)-5, imbricate. Petals (4)-5, imbricate, or somewhat contorted, deciduous. Stamens nearly always numerous, versatile, inflexed in bud. Ovary superior, 3-many-locular; carpel walls sometimes reaching the central axis. Ovules 1-numerous; styles 5-many, usually persistent. Fr. a berry or hard capsule. Seeds small, numerous, endospermic.
Rhizomes creeping, producing runners, scaly. Stipes and rachises glabrous except at very base. Laminae ovate, 10-30 × 6-15 cm, (2)-3-pinnate at base. Primary pinnae alternate, 8-12 on each side of rachis. Ultimate pinnules generally broader than long, either very broadly obovate, orbicular, or broadly ovate, 3-10 × 4-15 mm, cuneate at base, with stalk attached ± centrally, entire or shallowly lobed, glabrous, yellow green. Indusia ± reniform with prominent sinuses, glabrous, 1-4 per pinnule on outer margin only.
Rhizomes creeping, scaly. Stipes and rachises glabrous except at very base. Laminae ovate, 4-25 × 2-8 cm, 2-3-pinnate at base. Primary pinnae alternate, 4-8 on each side of rachis. Ultimate pinnules broadly obovate, rhombic, or flabellate, 5-20 × 6-20 mm, cuneate at base, with stalk attached ± centrally, usually deeply divided into 2-6 lobes, glabrous, yellow green. Indusia ± oblong, lacking sinuses, extending up to 5 mm along margin, glabrous, 1-8 per pinnule on outer margin only.
Rhizomes far-creeping, scaly. Stipes and rachises glabrous except at very base. Laminae ovate or elliptic, 10-35 × 5-24 cm, (2)-3-pinnate. Primary pinnae alternate, (1)-2-4-(5) on each side of rachis bearing secondary pinnae, and a terminal portion with 10-12 undivided primary pinnae on each side. Ultimate pinnules ± oblong or parallelogrammoid, tending to curve acroscopically at the apices, 8-25 × 4-12 mm; stalk attached at proximal corner; upper and outer margins irregularly toothed, lower and inner margins entire; both surfaces glabrous, upper surface dark green, lower glaucous. Indusia ± reniform with prominent sinuses, glabrous, to 14 per pinnule on upper and outer margins.
Rhizomes short, erect, scaly; rootlets bearing small tubers. Stipes and rachises glabrous except at very base. Laminae either 1-pinnate with 5-16 undivided pinnae on each side of rachis, or 2-pinnate with 1-(2) pairs of primary pinnae bearing secondary pinnae and a terminal portion with 12-25 undivided primary pinnae on each side; 1-pinnate fronds 5-10 × 1.5-3 cm, narrowly triangular; 2-pinnate fronds 8-20 × 4-18 cm, 3-fid. Ultimate pinnules ± oblong or parallelogrammoid, tending to curve basiscopically, 5-20 × 4-10 mm; stalk attached at proximal corner; upper and outer margins regularly lobed, inner and lower margins entire; upper surface glabrous, lower hairy or glabrous, both dark green. Indusia ± reniform with prominent sinuses, hairy or glabrous, up to 8 per pinnule on upper and outer margins.
Rhizomes far-creeping, scaly. Stipes and rachises rough; midribs of pinnae hairy. Laminae broadly ovate, 35-80 × 20-50 cm, (3)-4-pinnate. Primary pinnae alternate, 8-12 on each side of rachis bearing secondary pinnae, and a terminal portion bearing undivided primary pinnae. Ultimate pinnules ± oblong or parallelogrammoid, 4-13 × 3-6 mm; stalk attached at proximal corner; upper and outer margins regularly lobed, lower and inner margins entire; upper surface glabrous, lower glabrous or hairy, both surfaces dark green. Indusia crescent-shaped with shallow sinuses, glabrous, up to 10 per pinnule on upper and outer margins.
Rhizomes far-creeping, scaly. Stipes and rachises stiffly hairy. Laminae ovate or broadly ovate, 15-35 × 10-25 cm, (2)-3-pinnate. Primary pinnae alternate, 2-5 on each side of rachis bearing secondary pinnae, and a terminal portion with 10-18 undivided primary pinnae on each side. Ultimate pinnules ± oblong or parallelogrammoid, often curved acroscopically at the apices, 6-25 × 3-8 mm; stalk attached at proximal corner; upper and outer margins irregularly lobed, lower and inner margins entire; upper surface glabrous, lower stiffly hairy, both surfaces dark green. Indusia ± reniform with prominent sinuses, glabrous, up to 14 per pinnule on upper and outer margins, sometimes extending to apical part of lower margin.
Rhizomes short-creeping or ± erect, scaly. Stipes and rachises stiffly hairy. Laminae broadly ovate to ± orbicular, 12-30 × 10-25 cm, usually pedate, sometimes (2)-3-pinnate, divided into 5-15 branches to 20 cm long and bearing up to 40 pinnules on each side. Ultimate pinnules ± oblong or parallelogrammoid, 5-15 × 3-6 mm; stalk attached at proximal corner; upper and outer margins finely toothed, lower and inner margins entire; upper surface glabrous, lower hairy, both surfaces dark green at maturity but red-tinged when young. Indusia ± reniform with shallow sinuses, hairy, up to 22 per pinnule on upper and outer margins, often extending to inner margin.
Terrestrial ferns with erect to long-creeping scaly rhizomes. Stipes scaly at base only, often dark brown and polished. Fronds entire or 1-4-(6)-pinnate; ultimate segments stalked, usually ovate, flabellate, oblong, or parallelogrammoid; margins incised, lobed, or crenate; veins usually free. Sori borne on elongate, orbicular, reniform, or crescent-shaped, strongly recurved modified marginal lobes (usually called indusia). Spores trilete.
Rhizomes creeping, scaly. Stipes and rachises glabrous except at very base. Laminae ovate or elliptic, 12-30 × 6-18 cm, 3-4-pinnate at base. Primary pinnae alternate, 9-12 on each side of rachis. Ultimate pinnules very variable in size and shape, generally longer than broad, narrowly obovate, obovate, broadly obovate, or rhombic, 5-17 × 3-16 mm, cuneate at base, with stalk attached ± centrally, most divided into 2 or more distinct lobes, glabrous, bright green. Indusia ± reniform with prominent sinuses, glabrous, 1-8 per pinnule on outer margin only.
Rhizomes far-creeping, scaly. Stipes and rachises stiffly hairy. Laminae ovate or broadly ovate, 15-35 × 10-25 cm, (2)-3-pinnate. Primary pinnae alternate, 2-5 on each side of rachis bearing secondary pinnae, and a terminal portion with 10-18 undivided primary pinnae on each side. Ultimate pinnules ± oblong or parallelogrammoid, often curved acroscopically at the apices, 6-25 × 3-8 mm; stalk attached at proximal corner; upper and outer margins deeply lobed, lower and inner margins entire; both surfaces glabrous, dark green. Indusia ± reniform with prominent sinuses, glabrous, up to 14 per pinnule on upper and outer margins, sometimes extending to apical part of lower margin.
Glabrous rhizomatous perennial herbs. Lvs 1-2-ternate; segments broad, serrate. Umbels compound, pedunculate; bracts and bracteoles 0. Petals white or tinged pink, somewhat irregular, with apex deeply notched and inflexed; calyx teeth small or 0. Fr. ovoid, slightly flattened laterally, not beaked, spineless; commissure narrow; ribs 5 per mericarp, equal, slender; vittae 0 in ripe mericarps.
Stout, erect herb with long slender rhizomes. Stems hollow, grooved, up to 100 cm high. Basal lvs (1)-2-ternate, long-petiolate; ultimate segments ovate, acuminate, irregularly serrate, sometimes lobed, 3-8-(10) cm long, sessile or shortly petiolate; stem lvs similar to basal but usually smaller, 1-ternate and shortly petiolate. Umbels 2-8 cm diam.; rays few to numerous, 1.5-4 cm long. Fls numerous, white, 2-3 mm diam. Fr. dark brown with lighter ribs, 3-5 mm long.
Herb; stems short and prostrate, rather thin, rooting freely, hidden at or just below the ground and with lf rosettes at or close to the ground. Rosettes to c. 17 cm diam., flat, often clustered; smaller rosettes around the main or terminal one. Outer rosette lvs to c. 14 × 4 cm, 4-6 mm thick near middle, obovate or spathulate, tapering gradually towards base, green with dark greenish, rather faint dashes on lower surface, puberulent and flat on both surfaces except for slightly rounded keel on lower; margins ciliate, often slightly reddish in upper part, otherwise green; apex mucronulate to mucronate. Flowering shoots arising from below main rosette lvs; axis rather slender and spreading, puberulent, with numerous leaflike bracts decreasing in size towards infl. Infl. a rather small, broad, ovoid-pyramidal panicle, ± rounded at the top, to c. 9 cm long; fls secund along branches. Calyx lobes 2.5-4 mm long, puberulent, triangular-ovate or lanceolate-ovate. Petals 8-9, 5-7.5 × c. 2 mm, elliptic-lanceolate, yellow. Stamens yellow, the inner whorl 5-6 mm long, the outer whorl slightly shorter. Carpels white or very pale green. Scales c. 0.3 mm long, ± broad-obovate, rounded to emarginate. Fr. and seeds not seen.
Perennial or monocarpic; stems trunk-like, 20- c. 70 cm high, 1-2-(5) cm diam., not branched or with few to many lateral branches towards base, with numerous narrow, brown, elongated lf scars. Rosettes terminal, usually 7-20 cm diam. on main shoots, smaller on lateral branches, flattened except in summer. Outer rosette lvs to 8-(11) × 3-(4) cm, 2-3 mm thick, oblanceolate to obovate or obovate-spathulate, green or occasionally purple, glabrous and ± flat on both surfaces; margins ciliate or ciliolate, mostly green, sometimes red towards the mucronate apex. Flowering shoots terminal, either the whole plant or the stem bearing the infl. dying after flowering; axis stout, tall and erect, usually finely covered with very short glandular hairs, very rarely glabrate, with leaflike bracts usually deciduous by peak flowering. Infl. a broadly ovoid-pyramidal panicle, rounded at the top, usually 10-18 × 6-13 cm; fls densely arranged, not obviously secund on branches. Calyx lobes 1.5-3 mm long, puberulent with very short glandular hairs, lanceolate, narrow- to broad-triangular. Petals (7)-8-11, 6-9 × 1.5-2.5 mm, linear or linear-oblong to ± lanceolate-ovate, usually golden, rarely medium yellow. Stamens ± golden, the inner whorl 5-8.5 mm long, the outer whorl usually slightly shorter. Carpels greenish yellow. Scales (0.5)-0.8-1.2 mm long, ± square to rectangular or cuneate, truncate, erose or emarginate at apex. Seeds c. 0.5 mm long, narrowly ellipsoid, longitudinally ridged.
Small, bushy, much-branched shrub to c. 60 cm high, often forming a dense spreading clump; stems to c. 1.5 cm diam.; lf scars indistinct. Rosettes terminal, mostly 5-11-(14) cm diam., rather flattened. Outer rosette lvs to c. 7-(9) × 3-(3.5) cm, (3)-5-7 mm thick, obovate to broadly obovate- spathulate, usually glaucous, occasionally ± glaucescent (especially if shaded), glabrous on both surfaces, ± concave above and slightly keeled and convex on lower surface; margins ciliolate, red at least towards the mucronate apex. Flowering shoots terminal but vegetative growth often continued from lateral branches beneath; axis moderately stout, spreading, red, glabrous, with leaflike bracts numerous and somewhat decreasing towards infl. Infl. a broadly pyramidal panicle, rounded at the top, usually 10-24 cm long and nearly as wide; fls ± densely secund along branches. Calyx lobes 3-6 mm long, glabrous, narrowly triangular, triangular or triangular-ovate. Petals (6)-8-10, 8-12 × 2-4 mm, linear-elliptic, lanceolate-elliptic, or ± elliptic, whitish or cream, often with a pink flush and a green keel outside, sometimes pale yellow. Stamens white or pink, the inner whorl 5.5-9.5 mm long, the outer whorl usually slightly shorter or sometimes slightly longer. Carpels white or pinkish. Scales 0.5-1 mm long, square or ± rectangular, often emarginate. Seeds 0.6-0.7 mm long, obovoid-oblong, minutely longitudinally streaked.
Perennial or monocarpic; stems trunk-like, 20- c. 80 cm high, c. 1-2 cm diam., not branched or with few branches, with numerous narrow lf scars. Rosettes terminal, usually 10-18 cm diam., flattened except in summer. Outer rosette lvs to 9-(12) × 3.5 cm, 2-4-(5) mm thick, green, obovate or obovate- spathulate, glabrous on both surfaces, slightly concave on upper, flat on lower; margins ciliate, mostly green, sometimes slightly red towards the mucronate apex. Flowering shoots terminal, either the whole plant or the stem bearing the infl. dying after flowering; axis ± stout, usually tall and erect, glabrous, occasionally glabrate, with leaflike bracts usually present at peak flowering. Infl. a broadly pyramidal panicle, obtuse or rounded to flat at top, on main stem usually 12-20 cm long and almost as wide; fls fairly densely arranged, somewhat secund on branches. Calyx lobes 2.5-4 mm long, glabrous, triangular or triangular-lanceolate. Petals (8)-9-10, 8-11 × c. 2-3 mm, linear, linear-elliptic or linear-lanceolate, greenish white, cream, greenish yellow or pale yellow. Stamens of inner whorl 5.5-9 mm long, the outer whorl usually slightly shorter; stamens and carpels whitish, cream, pale green, greenish yellow, or pale yellow. Scales 0.6-1.5 mm long, almost rectangular or rectangular-cuneate, ± truncate or retuse. Seeds 0.6-0.9 mm long, narrowly obovoid-oblong, minutely longitudinally streaked.
Monocarpic or rarely perennial; stem trunk-like, not branched or with few short branches below infl., to c. 1.5 m high and usually 2-3 cm diam., sometimes smaller in exposed positions, with prominent, brown, lozenge-shaped scars. Rosettes terminal, 15-30 cm diam. on main stem, flattened except in summer. Outer rosette lvs to 24 × 6 cm, 2-4 mm thick, spathulate or obovate-spathulate, green, glabrous and ± flat on both surfaces; margins ciliate, ± red or reddish brown especially towards the mucronulate or mucronate apex. Flowering shoots terminal, the plant usually dying after flowering; axis very stout, tall, erect, glabrous or very rarely with minute glandular hairs, with numerous small leafy bracts up to flowering. Infl. a massive, broadly pyramidal panicle, ± acutely pointed at the top, usually 25-40 × 18-25 cm, sometimes smaller in exposed positions; fls ± secund along branches. Calyx lobes 1.2-3 mm long, usually glabrous, very rarely with minute glandular hairs, elliptic-lanceolate to triangular. Petals 8-11-(12), 6.5-10 × 2-3 mm, linear, linear-lanceolate to lanceolate-elliptic or narrowly oblong-elliptic, golden. Stamens yellow, the inner whorl 6-8.5 mm long, the outer whorl almost = inner. Carpels yellow or greenish yellow. Scales 0.4-0.7 mm long, ± square to rectangular-cuneate, sometimes slightly emarginate. Seeds 0.6-0.8 mm long, ± obovoid, minutely longitudinally streaked.
Monocarpic or rarely perennial; stems trunk-like, to c. 1 m high and c. 4 cm diam., not forming clumps but with a few much thinner lateral branches near the base only, with prominent very broadly rhombic scars. Rosettes terminal, mostly 10-20 cm diam., rather flattened. Outer rosette lvs to c. 21 × 4 cm, 4-5 mm thick, oblanceolate or narrowly obovate-spathulate and narrowed greatly towards base, glaucous, glabrous and flat with a rounded keel on both surfaces; margins ciliolate, purple especially in upper part; apex ± mucronulate. Flowering shoots terminal, the plants probably usually dying after flowering; axis very stout, tall, erect, glabrous, with many leaflike bracts. Infl. a large, broadly pyramidal panicle, 28-37 × 25-38 cm; fls densely arranged, somewhat secund along branches. Calyx lobes 2-2.5 mm long, glabrous, broadly triangular. Petals 6-7-(8), 8-8.5 × 1.8-2.5 mm, lanceolate or triangular-lanceolate, greenish white. Stamens white, the inner whorl 4.7-5.8 mm long, the outer whorl longer. Carpels white. Scales c. 0.5 mm long, rectangular and much wider than long, ± truncate at apex. Seeds not seen.
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Tree 10-15-(c. 25) m tall. Twigs stout, glabrous with prominent lf scars and large reddish brown, very viscid buds. Leaflets 5-7, sessile; central leaflets mostly 15-35 × 6-14 cm (basal leaflets smaller), obovate, somewhat brown-floccose below when young, later almost glabrous except for axillary tufts of hair beneath, irregularly crenate-serrate; base attenuate; apex cuspidate. Panicles to c. 30 cm high, broad-cylindric; peduncles and pedicels glabrous or hairy. Calyx 4-6 mm long, puberulent inside, scarious. Petals 1-1.7 cm long including narrow claw; limb ± broad-oblong, white with yellow to red spot near base, very undulate and recurved. Filaments slender, curving downwards, hairy. Capsule to 6 cm diam., subglobose, echinate. Seeds 1-2, 3-5 cm diam., usually ± subglobose, often somewhat asymmetric, dark shining brown with prominent, elongated, white hilum.
Deciduous trees or, less commonly, large shrubs, usually with large buds. Leaflets 5-7-(11). Infl. erect. Calyx always connate, tubular or campanulate, 5-toothed. Disc annular.
Erect perennial herb to subshrub, 1-3 m tall. Stems densely clothed in stalked glandular hairs at least above, sometimes also with eglandular hairs, sometimes tinged purple, much-branched. Lvs opposite; petiole glandular, 15-35-(50) mm long; lamina glabrescent to minutely glandular especially on veins of lower surface, ovate-rhombate to deltate, acute to acuminate, coarsely crenate-serrate except near base, 55-80-(120) × 35-70-(90) mm; uppermost lvs smaller, often ± elliptic and entire. Capitula 5-7 mm diam., numerous in terminal corymbs; peduncles densely glandular. Involucral bracts in 2 ± equal rows, with shorter, narrower supplementary bracts outside, narrow-elliptic to lanceolate, glandular, 4.5-5.5 mm long. Florets white. Achenes black, 5-angled, glabrous, 1.3-1.8 mm long.
Erect or sprawling perennial herb to subshrub, 0.3-1-(2) m tall. Stems moderately to densely clothed in purple-striped eglandular hairs at least above, often tinged purple, much-branched. Lvs opposite; petiole hairy, 12-20 mm long; lamina glabrescent to sparsely hairy especially on veins of lower surface, narrow-elliptic to lanceolate, acuminate, coarsely serrate except near base, (30)-60-100-(130) × (8)-15-25-(40) mm; uppermost lvs smaller, sometimes entire. Capitula 4-5 mm diam., many in terminal corymbs; peduncle clothed in eglandular hairs. Involucral bracts in 2 ± equal rows, usually with shorter, narrower supplementary bracts outside, narrow-elliptic to lanceolate, hairy, 4-5 mm long. Florets white. Achenes black, 5-angled, hairy especially on angles, 1.5-2 mm long.
Perennial herbs, subshrubs or shrubs. Lvs usually opposite, rarely alternate, petiolate, simple, entire to serrate or lobed. Infl. a lax or dense corymb. Involucral bracts in 1-2-(3) rows, usually subequal, with membranous margins. Receptacle convex; scales 0, but sometimes minute hairs present. Corolla tubular. Style usually with a distinctly swollen basal node. Achenes ellipsoid-cylindric, usually 5-angled, glabrous, hairy, or glandular; pappus of scabrid hairs, easily deciduous, with acute apical cells.
Erect or ascending annual herb, up to c. 1 m tall. Stems densely clothed in long eglandular and short glandular hairs above, becoming almost glabrous and sometimes somewhat woody toward base. Petiole hairy and glandular, 5-20-(50) mm long; lamina hairy and glandular especially on lower surface, ovate to ovate-triangular, acute, truncate to cordate, crenate-serrate, (12)-25-60-(100) × (12)-15-50-(70) mm; uppermost lvs smaller, sometimes with few teeth. Capitula c. 3-7 mm diam., in dense clusters; peduncles hairy and glandular. Involucral bracts ± equal, sometimes with supplementary bracts outside, oblong-triangular to lanceolate, acuminate, hairy and glandular, 4-5-(6) mm long. Florets usually blue and with conspicuous blue stigmas, rarely corolla and stigmas white. Achenes black, sparsely hairy, 1.4-1.8 mm long, with 5-(6), aristate, fimbriate scales.
Annual or perennial herbs or shrubs. Lvs opposite, petiolate, simple, usually toothed. Infl. a corymb, usually dense. Involucral bracts in 2-(3) rows, usually subequal, mostly chartaceous. Receptacle conic; scales usually 0. Corolla tubular. Style base not swollen. Achenes ellipsoid-cylindric to obpyramidal, 5-angled, hairy; pappus usually of few free or united scales, sometimes reduced to a corona or 0.
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Trees, usually deciduous. Lvs imparipinnate; leaflets somewhat oblique at base, with a ± conspicuous gland on each side beneath towards the base. Fls in large terminal panicles, ☿ or unisexual. Calyx 5-lobed. Petals 5, valvate, oblong. Stamens 10, inserted at base of 10-lobed disc. Carpels 2-5, connate or free below; styles connate with elongated, divergent stigmas. Fr. a samara, the compressed seed in the middle. Cotyledons suborbicular or broadly ovate.
Prostrate to erect or stemless annual to perennial usually succulent herbs or shrubs. Lvs usually opposite, rarely alternate, stipulate or exstipulate, fleshy, terete to trigonous or flat, usually smooth or papillate, rarely pubescent or lepidote; papillae sometimes glittering. Fls solitary or in loose cymes. Sepals (3)-4-6-(8), unequal, rarely equal. Petals many or rarely 0, brightly coloured, in 1-several series, free or very shortly fused at base. Staminodes present or 0. Stamens usually many, rarely 1 or few. Ovary usually inferior, rarely 1/2-inferior to superior, 2-5-(16)-locular; placentation axile to parietal; ovules numerous. Stigmas free, as many as locules. Fr. usually a multicelled capsule opening when wet by as many winged or unwinged valves as the styles, by the action of 2 expanding keels on the inner surface of each; locules with or without a lid; each placenta with or without a distal tubercle, or tubercle 2-lobed; rarely the fr. indehiscent, mucilaginous, or a berry or nut or circumscissile capsule. Seeds numerous, ovoid, sometimes compressed, variously sculptured or smooth; embryo large, curved around mealy endosperm.
Annual or perennial herbs, sometimes stoloniferous. Lvs simple, entire to deeply lobed. Verticels axillary or aggregated into terminal spikes. Bracts leaflike or reduced. Calyx ± actinomorphic, 5-toothed, 10- or more-nerved, tubular-campanulate, not gibbous at base. Corolla with upper lip often very short, usually 2-lobed; lower lip deeply 3-lobed; tube ± exserted, with ring of hairs inside. Stamens usually exserted. Style not gynobasic, equally 2-branched. Nutlets reticulately veined or transversely rugose.
Perennial; vegetative shoots ± procumbent and forming long, glabrous, aerial stolons. Lvs with winged petioles 1-2 cm long. Lamina 1.5-5 × 0.7-3 cm, broad-elliptic to elliptic-obovate or oblong, glabrous or becoming so, undulate or shallowly and broadly crenate; apex obtuse or rounded. Flowering stems to c. 25 cm tall, erect, densely hairy on 2 sides. Lower bracts similar to lvs but sessile and entire, tinged blue. Verticels crowded towards apex, c. 6-flowered. Calyx 4-5 mm long; teeth exceeding tube, lanceolate to elliptic, purplish, acute, with long white cilia. Corolla 13-17 mm long, blue with darker veins; tube > calyx, hairy outside; upper lip emarginate. Filaments glandular-puberulent, blue. Style blue. Nutlets not seen.
Glabrous, deciduous or almost evergreen, monoecious lianes. Buds with many imbricate scales. Lvs long-petiolate, digitately 3- or 5-foliolate. Leaflets petiolulate; apices ± emarginate. Fls in pendent axillary racemes, the ♀ larger and toward the base, the ♂ smaller and at apex. ♂ fls: sepals 3; petals 0; stamens 6, free; anthers subsessile; ovary rudimentary. ♀ fls: sepals 3; staminodes 6; carpels 3-(12); ovules in longitudinal rows; style 0. Frs berry-like but dehiscent, usually 3 to each fl., large, oblong, with numerous black seeds embedded in translucent gelatinous pulp.
High-climbing liane, deciduous, or ± evergreen in mild climates. Petioles to c. 12 cm long. Leaflets 5, entire; petiolules to 2 cm long on larger leaflets. Lamina of largest leaflet 3-6 × 2-4 cm, elliptic to obovate; base cuneate to rounded; basal pair of leaflets considerably smaller. Racemes 5-9 cm long, usually with 2 ♀ and 4-6 ♂ fls; fls fragrant. Peduncles slender; bracts of ♀ fls 3-5 mm long, lanceolate, acuminate; bracts of ♂ fls smaller. Pedicels filiform, much > bracts. Sepals of ♂ fls c. 6 mm long, broad-elliptic to suborbicular, valvate, pinkish purple. Stamens 3-4 mm long, incurved. Sepals of ♀ fls 11-15 mm long, suborbicular, concave, scarcely valvate, purple. Ovary of 3-6 carpels, each 4-6 mm long; stigma with prominent glistening mucilage. Fr. 8-9 cm long, sausage-shaped, mauve or purple.
Perennial herbs with tall stems. Lvs toothed or lobed. Fls solitary and axillary or in axillary clusters, shortly pedicellate or sessile; epicalyx segments 6-(9), united at least in part; calyx evenly 5-toothed; petals spreading, obtuse to emarginate. Style branches as many as loculi, filiform. Fr. of numerous, 1-seeded, indehiscent, awnless mericarps arranged in a single flat whorl round short conic apex of receptacle, separating at maturity.
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Somewhat robust, low-growing herb up to 40 cm high at flowering; rhizomes branching to form leafy clumps. Lvs mostly in rosettes; petioles 150-250 mm long, all with spreading hairs; blade reniform, (50)-70-100 mm diam., divided into 9-(10), shallow, rounded lobes, pale green and with soft, somewhat appressed hairs on both surfaces, somewhat pleated; teeth of lobes even, ovate, ciliate, acute to short-acuminate, red-tipped, 7-9 on each side of terminal lobe; stipules membranous, brownish purple, adnate to petiole for most of length. Infl. of numerous, small cymes subtended by leafy bracts; peduncle densely covered in spreading hairs; all except ultimate infl. branches moderately to sparsely covered in spreading hairs; fls shortly pedicellate, c. 3 mm diam., 4-(5)-merous. Pedicels and hypanthium usually glabrous, very rarely with a few hairs. Epicalyx segments oblong-triangular, c. 0.5 mm long, acute, greenish. Sepals connate at base, triangular, acute, usually greenish, sometimes slightly reddish, > epicalyx segments. Stamens 4-(5). Achene enclosed in obconic hypanthium.
Short-stemmed, perennial herbs; branches short; rhizomes woody. Lvs mostly basal, palmate or palmately lobed, usually dentate; stipules large and persistent. Infl. a compound cyme with fls aggregated into glomerules. Fls 4-(5)-merous, small, yellowish or greenish, shortly pedicellate, ☿. Hypanthium campanulate or urceolate. Epicalyx present, the lobes sometimes > calyx lobes. Calyx with ± triangular sepals. Petals 0. Stamens 4-(5), inserted on outer margin of hypanthium disc. Ovary superior, surrounded by the hypanthium; carpel 1; style 1; ovule 1. Fr. a single achene, wholly or partly enclosed in the thin, dry hypanthium.
Monoecious trees; sap milky. Lvs stipulate, alternate, entire or palmately lobed but not serrate. ♂ and ♀ fls mixed in terminal panicles; ♀ fls at ends of branches surrounded by several ♂. ♂ fls: calyx dividing into 2-3 segments, united in bud; petals 5; anthers 8-20; filaments sometimes branched. ♀ fls: calyx dividing into 2-3 segments; petals 5, much smaller than in ♂; ovary 2-5-celled, with 1 ovule in each cell; styles 2, deeply 2-fid. Fr. fleshy, spherical, with cells not separating at maturity.
Tree, up to 20 m high. Twigs densely clothed in stellate hairs when young, becoming rounded, ± smooth and glabrous when older. Lvs densely clothed in stellate hairs when young, glabrous when mature, ovate or broadly ovate and 3-5-lobed, sometimes entire and ovate near infl., obtuse to cordate at base, c. 6-13 cm long; apex and lobes usually acute (lateral lobes rarely rounded); lf hairs giving a frosted appearance to the tree; petiole usually = or > blade; stipules soon deciduous. Panicles erect; bracts deciduous; fls white. Fr. glabrous, shallowly grooved between cells, ± smooth or irregularly bullate, c. 2.5 cm diam., becoming very hard; beak short or 0.
Annual or biennial taprooted herbs. Hairs simple. Stems erect, leafy. Lvs simple, cordate to truncate, petiolate. Racemes ebracteate. Sepals erect, not saccate. Petals white. Stamens 6, without appendages. Lateral nectaries 4, joined around bases of lateral stamens; median nectaries 2. Style short; stigma capitate. Silique linear, dehiscent; valves with prominent midrib and 2 weaker lateral veins; beak 0. Seeds narrow-ovoid to cylindric, not winged, in 1 row per locule.
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Tree to c. 15 m high (to c. 20 m in cultivation). Bark dark brown, strongly fissured. Young shoots glabrous but glandular-viscid. Winter buds short-stalked, purplish. Petiole 7-15 mm long, often purplish. Lamina 4-10 × 2.5-10 cm (to 14 × 13 cm on vigorous vegetative shoots), broadly oblong to obovate, plicate in bud, hairy on veins beneath at first, soon glabrous except for tufts of axillary hairs, serrulate to coarsely serrate, lobulate on basal vegetative shoots; veins in 6-7 pairs, prominently raised beneath; base usually cuneate; apex rounded to retuse. Buds stipitate, not enclosing ♀ catkins in winter. ♂ catkins 3-8 together behind shoot apices, 2.5-7 cm long (to 12 cm in cultivation), cylindric, opening in spring before lvs; peduncles to c. 5 cm long; bracts peltate, purplish; anthers yellow. ♀ catkins 3-7 together behind shoot apices, c. 5 mm long, glandular. Cone (1)-1.3-1.7-(2) cm long, ellipsoid; scales becoming horizontal after dehiscence and persistent on tree. Nutlet c. 3 mm long, broadly ovoid; wing narrower than nut.
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Shrub 0.75-2 m high, multi-stemmed and tending to layer. Shoots and lvs ± glandular-viscid when young. Winter buds sessile, dark. Petiole 1-2 cm long. Lamina to c. 7 × 6 cm, broadly ovate, broadly elliptic, or suborbicular, hairy beneath on veins, at least when young, irregularly serrate; veins in 5-6 pairs; base broadly cuneate to rounded; apex acute. Buds sessile, enclosing ♀ catkins in winter. ♂ catkins few at shoot apices, 3-6 cm long, pendulous, opening at lf flush; bracts c. 1.5 mm long, broadly ovate or suborbicular, often reddish where exposed. ♀ catkins all pedunculate, to 6 in loose racemes, 7-10 mm long at anthesis, narrow-cylindric, glandular-scaly. Cones 6-10 mm long, broadly ellipsoid when open, with horizontal bracts. Nutlet c. 2 mm long, broadly ellipsoid; wing as wide as nut.
Annual or perennial herbs; stems erect, creeping, procumbent or decumbent, sometimes floating. Lvs opposite, entire, sessile or petiolate. Infls sessile or pedunculate, capitate or spicate, usually axillary; fls usually ☿, sometimes ♀, each with a scarious bract and 2 scarious bracteoles. Tepals 5-merous, often dorsally compressed, equal or unequal, free, glabrous or hairy. Stamens 2-5; filaments connate in a short tube at the base; staminodes sometimes present; anthers small, 1-celled. Ovary compressed or terete; ovule 1, pendulous on long funicle. Style short; stigma capitate. Fr. an utricle, indehiscent, often compressed, with persistent perianth, falling with or without bracteoles. Seed vertical.
Perennial herb; stems creeping or floating, ascending towards apex, rooting at the lower nodes, branched, hollow, with a longitudinal hairy groove on 2 opposite sides. Lvs subsessile or with petiole to 5 mm long, with a ring of white hairs between the 2 opposite lf bases. Lamina 3-13 × 1-3.5 cm, elliptic to oblanceolate or obovate, glabrous or slightly hairy near the attenuate base; apex obtuse or acute. Infls in upper axils, mostly 1-2 cm diam., capitate, white; peduncles to 9 cm long with 2 opposite longitudinal hairy grooves, occasionally heads shortly pedunculate and terminal. Bracts 2.5-3.5 mm long, ovate-acuminate; bracteoles similar to bracts, somewhat smaller, persistent. Tepals 5-7 mm long, oblong to ovate, acute or obtuse. Fertile stamens 5; staminodes = stamens. Style short, thick; stigma capitate. Fr. not seen.
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Annual herb; stems erect, leafy, branched below, (5)-10-18-(45) cm tall. Lvs entire, stellate-hairy, (2)-5-10 × (1)-2-4 mm; basal lvs oblanceolate to obovate; stem lvs narrower. Infl. a raceme, (5)-10-15 cm long; pedicels spreading, hairy, 2-3-(4) mm long. Sepals stellate-hairy, persistent at fruiting, 3 × 1 mm. Petals hairy beneath, obtuse to shallowly emarginate, 4-6 × 1-1.5 mm. Outer filaments with slender paired appendages. Silicle almost circular, shortly emarginate, inflated in centre, 3-4 × 3-(4) mm; valves stellate-hairy; veins faint or 0; style 0.3-0.4 mm long. Seeds brown, ovoid, flattened, narrowly winged, 1.5 × 1 mm, usually 2 per locule.
Annual to perennial, taprooted herbs. Hairs branched or stellate, rarely mixed with unbranched hairs, rarely scaly. Stems decumbent to erect, leafy. Lvs simple; margin entire. Racemes ebracteate. Sepals erecto-patent, not saccate. Petals yellow, entire, emarginate or 2-fid. Stamens 6, usually appendaged. Lateral nectaries 4, rounded to filiform on both sides of short stamens; median nectaries 0. Style short; stigma capitate or emarginate. Silicle orbicular or obovate, usually emarginate, inflated or flat, latiseptate, dehiscent; valves usually not veined or with faint median vein. Seeds flattened, usually winged, 1-2-(6) per locule, loosely arranged.
Perennial herb; stems decumbent to erect, leafy, branched above, 15-50 cm tall. Lvs entire, stellate-hairy; rosette and lower cauline lvs oblanceolate to obovate, 3-10-(15) × 1-3 cm; upper cauline lvs linear to lanceolate, 1-2 cm long. Infl. a diffuse panicle 15-30 cm long; pedicels erecto-patent, hairy, 0.3-0.6 mm long. Sepals deciduous, 1-2 × 0.5-1 mm, with tangled stellate hairs. Petals glabrous, emarginate, 3-4 × 2-3 mm. Outer filaments with small suborbicular appendage at base. Silicle almost circular, obtuse, flattened, 4-5 × 4-5 mm; valves glabrous; veins faint; style 0.7-1 mm long. Seeds brown, elliptic to circular, flattened, 2-3 × 2-2.5 mm, 2 per locule.
Annual or perennial herbs, rarely shrubs, lianes or trees. Lvs alternate or opposite, simple, exstipulate. Fls small, ☿, arranged in spikes, heads or racemes, usually conspicuously bracteate; bracts and bracteoles often scarious. Tepals (corresponding to sepals) (2)-3-5, free or nearly so, imbricate, nearly always scarious. Petals O. Stamens (1)-5, opposite the tepals; filaments united basally; staminodes present or 0. Ovary superior, 1-locular; ovules usually solitary; stigma capitate or 2-3-lobed. Fr. (utricle) indehiscent or with circumscissile dehiscence; pericarp usually dry and membranous, less commonly fr. baccate. Seeds globose, ellipsoid or compressed, smooth or verrucose, endospermic.
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Annual herb; stem erect, to c. 1 m high, simple, rather angular, red-tinged, somewhat hairy. Petioles to c. 6 cm long, red-tinged. Lamina 3.5-11 × 1.5-5 cm (to 20 × 10 cm in cultivation), lanceolate-ovate or rhombic-ovate, glabrous above, ± puberulent on main veins beneath; base usually narrow-cuneate; apex obtuse and often mucronate. Infl. a dense spike-like panicle, usually interrupted near base, to c. 18 cm high, crimson, often with shorter lateral branches near base, the whole panicle pendulous from base. Rhachis hairy. Longer bracteoles 3-3.5 mm long, ovate with subulate tip; shorter bracteoles similar. Tepals 5, (1.2)-1.5-2.2 mm long, strongly imbricate, ± obovate, keeled; apex usually mucronate. Stigmas 3, crimson, > perianth. Frs slightly > perianth, circumscissile near the centre, ± urceolate. Seed 1-1.5 mm diam., orbicular, dark brown or black, shining.
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Annual or short-lived perennial with green or brownish procumbent or decumbent branched stems often forming large mats. Petioles to c. 2.5 cm long, ± puberulent. Lamina 0.5-4-(6) × 0.3-2.25-(3) cm, sometimes larger on vegetative shoots, ovate, triangular-ovate, to rhombic, glabrous above except for midrib, sometimes puberulent on veins below, sometimes glabrate; base cuneate; apex obtuse to acute. Infl. a terminal spike, often interrupted; lateral branches below with short lateral spikes in upper lf-axils. Bracteoles 1-1.5-(2) mm long, ovate, keeled, green, glabrous. Tepals 2-3, scarcely > bracteoles, oblong, linear-oblong, or oblong-spathulate, keeled, mucronate. Fr. ellipsoid, compressed, smooth, indehiscent, with 3 longitudinal lines, 1.5-2× perianth when mature. Seed 0.8-1-(1.1) mm diam., broadly obovoid, dark brown, only occupying part of lower 1/2 of capsule.
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Annual to c. 1 m high, erect, branched, often red-tinged, with stout ribbed hairy stems, sometimes slender if in impoverished dry soil. Petioles of lower lvs to 10 cm long, hairy or glabrous. Lamina 6-15 × 2-7.5 cm (smaller lvs subtending infl.), ovate, lanceolate-ovate to elliptic-ovate, becoming glabrous apart from puberulent nerves below; base cuneate; apex obtuse or acute. Panicle crimson-red or green, much-branched; main axis erect, to c. 20 cm high; branches spreading, further divided or not. Spikes densely arranged, c. 5 mm wide, short or slender and up to 5-(10) cm long. Bracteoles 2-4 mm long, ovate with subulate tip; keel greenish or red. Perianth 5-merous. Tepals 5, unequal, mostly 1-2 mm long (the longest c. 3 mm long), elliptic-oblong, acute or shortly acuminate, green or reddish with darker keel; tepals of ♂ fls slightly > ♀ at anthesis. Stigmas 3-(4), usually > tepals. Fr. = or > perianth, circumscissile, obovoid, with very short neck. Seed 1-1.2-(5) mm diam., ± orbicular, shining dark brown or black; margin keeled.
Infl. erect, green. Lateral spikes densely arranged, to c. 3 cm × 4 mm. Bracteoles and perianth green.
Infl. erect, crimson, to c. 20 cm high. Lateral spikes densely arranged, to c. 5 cm × 5 mm. Bracteoles and perianth usually crimson; keel often darker.
Annual, rarely perennial, usually monoecious, sometimes dioecious, prostrate to erect herbs. Lvs alternate, entire. Infl. cymose, composed of axillary or terminal spikes; spikes sessile or pedunculate, solitary or clustered (paniculate). Fls densely arranged and each subtended by a bract and 2 bracteoles; bracts and bracteoles occasionally spiny, often varying in length in each cymose cluster. Tepals (2)-3 or (4)-5, membranous, green, brown, red, or hyaline, persistent. Stamens as many as tepals, free; staminodes 0. Stylar branches 2-3-(4), with stigmatic surface to near base; ovule 1, sessile. Fr. dry, membranous, indehiscent, or dehiscent and circumscissile; pericarp usually smooth, enclosed in persistent perianth. Seed usually glossy, smooth and black or dark brown.
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Erect, ± hairy annual herb to c. 80 cm high, but plants often only a few cm high in impoverished conditions. Stem angular, ± hairy when young, red, especially towards base. Petiole to c. 7 cm long, often reddish, usually hairy. Lamina extremely variable according to habitat, 2-11 × 1-7 cm (smaller in infl. and very depauperate plants), ovate or rhombic-ovate, usually glabrate beneath and becoming glabrous above; base narrow-cuneate to attenuate; apex obtuse, sometimes mucronate. Panicles green, with elongated main spike to c. 25 cm long at fruiting, with shorter spikes in axils of uppermost lvs, the lvs sometimes very reduced. Longer bracteoles 4-8 mm long, ovate, with long subulate green tip; shorter bracteoles similar. Fls 4-5-merous; tepals very unequal, especially in ♀ fls; ♀ fls with 1-2 longer and 3 shorter tepals, the longer 2.5-3-(4) mm, ± oblong, keeled, gradually tapering to the sharply acute or short-acuminate apex. Fr. subglobose, circumscissile, usually with prominent neck, not exceeding tepals except for the 3 persistent stigmas. Seed 1-1.5 mm diam., lenticular, dark brown or black.
Hairy, erect, annual herb to c. 1 m high, but very variable in size; stems reddish towards base, densely hairy above. Petioles c. 5 cm long. Lamina 2-10 × 1-4.5 cm, ovate-lanceolate, becoming glabrous above; veins persistently hairy below; margin undulate, usually ciliate; base cuneate; apex obtuse. Infl. dense, spike-like, to c. 20 cm high, with numerous short lateral branches. Longer bracteoles 4-5 mm long, lanceolate-subulate with green keel; shorter bracteoles similar. Tepals 4-5, 2-2.7-(3) mm long, oblong; keel green; apex ± truncate to rounded and cuspidate. Fr. broadly ellipsoid, circumscissile, with rounded apex, included within persistent perianth except for stigma apices. Seed 1-1.3 mm diam., suborbicular or broadly ovoid, dark brown.
Glabrous erect, annual herb with stout, angular stems to c. 1 m high. Petioles slender, to c. 5 cm long. Lamina of infl.-lvs to c. 5 × 1.5 cm, ovate-lanceolate to oblong; veins prominently elevated below; base cuneate to attenuate; apex obtuse, usually with prominent mucro. Infl. to c. 10 cm long, green; terminal spikes slender; main branch much > lateral branches. Lower fl. clusters compact, all ♀, at least some with a pair of spines 6-12 mm long. Longer bracteoles 2.5-3 mm long, ovate with subulate tip and green keel; shorter bracteoles 2-2.5 mm long. Tepals 4-5, 1.5-2 mm long, oblong-obovate, green; keel narrow; apex acute or mucronate. Fr. ovoid-ellipsoid, circumscissile, not exceeding tepals. Seed 0.7-1 mm diam., orbicular, dark brown.
Sprawling or suberect annual herb, to c. 40 cm high, sparingly hairy except for young stems. Petioles of lvs of non-flowering shoots and lower part of flowering shoots to c. 6 cm long, those of infl.-lvs often much shorter. Lamina 1.7-6.5 × 8-5.5 cm, ovate or triangular-ovate, becoming glabrous above, usually remaining puberulent on the prominent pale nerves below, undulate or ± crenulate; base cuneate; apex obtuse to emarginate. Infl. a dense, elongated, terminal, puberulent spike, and branches below, usually also with short axillary spikes in upper lf axils, usually greenish brown or brown. Bracteoles 0.8-1.3 mm long, broadly ovate, mucronate, with green keel. Tepals 3, 1-1.4 mm long, oblong-spathulate, > bracteoles; keel green, ± mucronate. Fr. subglobose, = or slightly > perianth, prominently rugose, indehiscent. Seed 0.9-1.1 mm diam., subglobose, black or dark brown, occupying nearly all fr. cavity.
Erect annual, 30-100 cm tall. Stems moderately clothed in short patent hairs and long erect hairs above, becoming glabrous below, much-branched. Lvs petiolate, moderately to densely clothed in short patent hairs below, less hairy above, often with long marginal hairs at base of petiole, deeply 2-3-pinnatisect, ovate, up to 15 cm long; ultimate segments (1)-2-7 mm wide; upper cauline lvs smaller, ± apetiolate and finally 1-pinnatisect. ♂ capitula pedunculate, 3-5 mm diam.; involucre saucer-shaped, shallowly lobed and usually ciliate. ♀ capitula solitary or clustered. Fruiting involucre glabrous or sparsely hairy, distinctly veined, 3-5 mm long, with a single series of 1-6 short spines around the flattened top; terminal beak 1-1.5 mm long.
Annual or perennial herbs, rarely shrubs. Lvs opposite below, often alternate above, simple, lobed to 2-3-pinnatisect. Capitula unisexual, inconspicuous; all florets tubular. ♂ capitula sessile or pedunculate, in ebracteate spikes or racemes; involucre herbaceous, 5-12-lobed; receptacle flat; scales present. ♀ capitula each with a single floret, solitary or clustered, in axils of uppermost lvs; involucre enclosing achene, beaked at fruiting and often bearing 1-2 rows of spines or tubercules. Achenes all similar, ovoid, not winged; pappus 0.
Annual or biennial herbs, usually glabrous. Lvs 1-3-pinnate or ternate; segments narrow. Umbels compound, pedunculate; bracts several, long, simple or pinnate; bracteoles numerous. Petals white or yellowish, irregular, with apex deeply notched and inflexed; calyx teeth small or 0. Fr. ovoid or ovoid-oblong, slightly flattened laterally, not beaked, spineless; commissure narrow; ribs 5 per mericarp, equal, slender; vittae solitary in furrows.
Glabrous, glaucous, erect annual. Stems ± solid, grooved, striate, up to 150 cm high. Basal lvs (1)-2-pinnate, long-petiolate; ultimate segments narrowly elliptic or ovate, coarsely and irregularly serrate, sometimes lobed, 2-10 cm long, sessile or shortly petiolate; stem lvs reduced, (1)-2-3-pinnate, shortly petiolate, with lanceolate to linear or pinnatisect, acuminate segments. Umbels 2-11 cm diam.; rays numerous, fine and incurved at fruiting; bracts numerous, 3-fid or pinnate with filiform to lanceolate segments; bracteoles numerous, linear-lanceolate. Fls numerous, white, 2-3 mm diam. Fr. brown with pale ribs, c. 2 mm long; vittae prominent.
Annual herb. Stems up to 1 m high, branched, often with long straight and short curly hairs. Basal and lower cauline lvs to c. 20 × 3 cm, linear-lanceolate to linear-oblong, hispid with hairs pulvinate at base; base attenuate; apex ± obtuse and mucronate; upper lvs similar but smaller. Infl. with basal bracts; pedicels very short. Calyx (1)-2-4-(4.5) mm long at flowering, to 5 mm long at fruiting; lobes linear-lanceolate, hispid. Corolla 4-8 mm long, yellow; tube ampliate, glabrous within; limb 2-3 mm diam., suborbicular. Nutlets c. 2.5 mm long, with longitudinal muricate ridges and transversely rugose furrows.
Annual herbs, usually very bristly. Infl. terminal, ebracteate or less commonly with basal bracts. Calyx 5-lobed nearly to base, sometimes some lobes connate, often clothed in brownish hairs. Corolla with cylindric tube without scales; limb funnelform or salverform. Stamens included. Stigma capitate. Nutlets ovoid-trigonous, smooth or rugose, attached to receptacle along lower end of ventral keel.
Trees or shrubs, often with resinous bark and sap turning black upon exposure. Lvs usually alternate, rarely opposite, simple or compound, nearly always exstipulate. Fls small, in axillary or terminal panicles, ☿ or unisexual, usually regular. Calyx 3-7-lobed, sometimes deeply so. Petals 3-7 or 0, usually free, occasionally connate. Disc ± annular. Stamens usually twice as many as petals, inserted on disc margin. Ovary superior, 1-(5)-locular; placentation basal or apical; ovule 1, pendulous; styles free and often widely separated. Fr. usually a drupe, sometimes an achene. Seed non-endospermic or with a very thin endosperm.
Annual; stems trailing or prostrate, (2)-5-40 cm long, sometimes mat-forming. Lvs sessile, (2)-5-25 × (1.5)-3-18 mm, ovate, elliptic, or elliptic-ovate, sometimes very broad-ovate, often indistinctly dotted with sessile black glands beneath; base rounded or subcordate; apex ± obtuse. Fls solitary; pedicels (0.5)-1-2 cm long. Calyx (3)-3.5-4.5 mm long; lobes lanceolate, acuminate; margins scarious. Corolla (2)-6-15 mm diam., orange, orange-red or deep blue, conspicuous; lobes c. 3-7 mm long, elliptic or obovate, entire or slightly crenulate with numerous minute red to black-tipped glandular hairs on margin. Stamens c. (1)-2 mm long; filaments much > anthers, ± purple except for white-hairy dilated base. Capsule (2.5)-3-5 mm diam., ± = calyx; style persistent. Seed 0.7- c. 1.4 mm long, reticulate, flattened on 1 side, convex and keeled on the other.
Stems nearly always 5-40 cm long, usually many-branched, rarely simple or with few branches. Lvs (5)-7-25 × (3)-5-18 mm, usually ovate, elliptic or elliptic-ovate. Corolla 3-7 × 6-15 mm, orange, orange-red or blue. Stamens 1-2 mm long. Capsule 3-5 mm diam. Seeds usually 1-1.4 mm long.
Stems 2-10-(15) cm long, simple or 1-3-branched. Lvs 2-10 × 1.5-8 mm, usually broad-elliptic to very broad-ovate. Corolla c. 2-3 × 4-6 mm, deep blue. Stamens c. 1 mm long. Capsule c. 2.5 mm diam. Seeds 0.7-0.9 mm long.
Erect or creeping, annual or perennial herbs, glabrous except for corolla and stamens, not heterostylous. Lvs opposite, alternate or verticillate, entire. Fls axillary, mostly solitary; pedicels often slender, rarely almost 0. Calyx deeply 5-lobed; lobes narrow. Corolla deeply 5-lobed, rotate or funnelform; tube very short. Stamens inserted at or near base of corolla tube, free or connate at base, reticulate or papillose. Capsule globose, circumscissile. Seeds numerous.
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Annual, biennial or perennial herbs. Lvs alternate, usually hispid, less commonly villous. Infl. an axillary or terminal cyme, bracteate. Calyx 5-lobed, usually deeply so. Corolla tube straight or curved; limb rotate or campanulate, usually purple or blue, uncommonly white or yellow; throat with 5 ovate or oblong, papillose or hairy scales. Stamens included or slightly exserted. Style included; stigma capitate. Nutlets variously shaped, erect or oblique, reticulate, rugose or tuberculate, with thickened collar at base.
Perennial herb 50-150 cm tall, with creeping rhizomes. Basal lvs few, 3-foliolate; petioles sparsely appressed-tomentose, sulcate, (10)-15-40 cm long; leaflets 3-5-lobed up to 1/2 way, petiolulate, 2-serrate, bristly or sparsely hispid, green above, pale beneath, cordate at base, unevenly so on lateral leaflets, acute at apex, 5-12-(20) × 3-9-(15) cm. Subfloral lvs similar, smaller, becoming simple, 3-lobed, cuneate at base. Fls erect, 4-8 cm diam., (1)-3-8 in umbels; pedicels tomentose, 5-25 cm long. Perianth segments 7-14-(20), pink or rarely white, tomentose beneath, usually glabrous above. Achenes not maturing.
Perennial herbs, with a creeping or tuberous rhizome or descending rootstock. Lvs mostly basal, 3-foliolate or palmate. Stems with a subfloral whorl of (2)-3-(4) lvs. Fls ☿, solitary or in umbels. Perianth segments all petaloid, 5-15-(20), without spurs or nectaries. Stamens many, the outer sometimes reduced to nectariferous staminodes. Carpels many, with a single ovule. Achenes many, style neither elongated nor feathery.
Perennial herb 15-30 cm tall, with creeping rhizome. Basal lvs few, 3-foliolate; petioles glabrous or very sparsely hairy, shallowly sulcate, 10-20 cm long; leaflets lobed up to 1/2 way, sometimes more deeply, petiolulate, serrate, glabrous or very sparsely hairy on surfaces, bristly on margins, light green above, paler beneath, cuneate at base, acute at apex, 3-6 × 3-6 cm. Subfloral lvs similar, smaller. Fls erect, 2-3 cm diam., solitary; peduncles tomentose, 4-10 cm long. Perianth segments (5)-6-7-(9), white, flushed with pink or purple beneath, glabrous. Achenes downy, in nodding heads.
Perennial herb (5)-15-50 cm tall, with erect or creeping rhizome. Basal lvs few, 3-foliolate; petioles with a few appressed bristles, shallowly sulcate, 2-10-(15) cm long; leaflets divided to 1/2 way into 3 entire or 3-fid segments, sessile or shortly petiolulate, sparsely bristly above, light green above, paler beneath, cuneate at base, acute at apex, 1-3 × 1-2 cm. Subfloral lvs 3-fid, cuneate. Fls nodding, 1-1.5 cm diam., solitary; peduncle 1-10-(15) cm long, with sparse appressed bristly hairs. Perianth segments 5-(7), pinkish to reddish brown, glabrous except for minute papillae above. Achenes glabrous, in erect heads.
Glabrous or tomentose biennial to perennial herbs, with stout taproots. Lvs 2-3-pinnate or ternate; segments usually broad. Umbels compound, pedunculate; bracts usually 0, sometimes present, linear; bracteoles usually numerous, entire, rarely pinnate or 0. Petals usually white or green, sometimes pink, purple or violet, regular, with entire, acuminate, inflexed apex; calyx teeth evident, minute or 0. Fr. ovate, oblong or globose, strongly flattened dorsally, not beaked, spineless, but sometimes tomentose; commissure broad; ribs 5 per mericarp; dorsal ribs slender or slightly winged; lateral ribs with a broad, thin, or corky wing; lateral wings of opposing mericarps not appressed; vittae few to numerous in furrows.
Stout, fleshy biennial or short-lived perennial with faint aniseed odour. Stems sparsely puberulent, hollow, grooved, striate, up to 60-(100) cm high. Basal lvs glabrous, 2-3-pinnate, petiolate; ultimate segments ovate to elliptic or lanceolate, serrate, sometimes lobed or pinnatisect, c. 2-7-(15) cm long, ± sessile, dark glossy green and recurved when fresh; stem lvs similar to basal, but 1-3-pinnate and shortly petiolate. Umbels (5)-10-20 cm diam., flat-topped; rays puberulent, numerous, stout; bracts 5-8, usually linear, sometimes fewer and broader; bracteoles numerous, lanceolate. Fls numerous, greenish white, 1-3 mm diam. Fr. glabrous, ovate-oblong, 8-12 mm long, brown with lighter, spongy lateral wings.
Evergreen or semi-deciduous, hairy shrub to c. 4 m high, forming large thickets by suckering. Bark tough and fibrous. Shoots tomentose. Petiole 5-15 mm long. Lamina (3)-6-21-(26) × (1.5)-3-12-(18) cm, ovate-elliptic, elliptic, or obovate, glaucous and densely hairy beneath, becoming sparingly so above; base broadly cuneate; apex rounded to obtuse. Fls usually solitary, sometimes 2 together, opposite upper lf axils. Pedicels 6-10 mm long, brown-tomentose. Calyx 2-3 mm long; lobes brown-tomentose. Outer 3 petals c. 2.5 × 0.8 cm, thick, fleshy, green, tomentulose outside; inner 3 petals minute. Filaments very short; connectives densely silky hairy. Carpels brown-tomentose. Fr. ± segmented, broadly ovate-cordate, c. 8 cm diam.
Evergreen or sometimes deciduous shrubs or trees, with simple or stellate hairs. Lvs ± coriaceous. Fls solitary or few together, terminal, or lateral and lf-opposed, sometimes cauliflorous. Sepals 3, valvate, small, connate at base. Petals 6, in 2 whorls, sometimes inner whorl reduced to scales or 0; outer petals fleshy, valvate, greenish or yellowish, ± concave. Stamens numerous; filaments fleshy, connective produced above and concealing anthers, forming a truncate disc apically. Carpels numerous, 1-seeded, soon becoming united; ovule basal. Fr. a fleshy syncarp, often large, sometimes the fleshy carpels only loosely cohering.
Trees, shrubs or lianes, usually aromatic. Lvs alternate, entire, exstipulate. Fls in fascicles, panicles or sometimes solitary, usually ☿, actinomorphic; receptacle flat to conic. Sepals (2)-3, free or united, deciduous or persistent, ± valvate, green, yellow or purplish. Petals usually 6, rarely 3-4, in 2 rows, valvate or imbricate in each whorl, sometimes outer valvate and inner somewhat imbricate, of similar colour to sepals. Stamens usually numerous, rarely few, spirally arranged; filaments very short and thick, or 0; anthers 2-locular, adnate to connective and often hidden by it, nearly always extrorse. Ovary superior; carpels few to numerous, usually free. Ovules 1-numerous; placentation basal or parietal; styles thick, short, usually free. Fr. of stalked, free carpels, or more rarely carpels united and fr. with 1-many locules, dry or succulent, usually indehiscent. Seeds with abundant ruminate endosperm, often arillate; embryo minute.
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Glabrous vines with annual shoots arising from a fleshy rhizome. Lvs ± succulent, sessile or petiolate. Fls ☿ or unisexual, in simple or branched racemes or spikes. Bracts persistent or caducous. Bracteoles 4, in 2 decussate pairs appressed to perianth; lower pair small and free or connate; upper pair tepaloid and keeled. Tepals connate at base, enclosing ovary; segments patent at anthesis. Style usually 1 and splitting to varying degrees, sometimes 3; stigmas 1-2 to each arm, linear to globose. Fr. globose, enclosed by perianth; pericarp fleshy or parchment-like. Seeds lens-shaped.
Almost scentless, annual herb. Stems prostrate, ascending, or erect, 10-20-(40) cm long, striate, moderately to densely hairy, at least above, usually much-branched from base. Basal and lower cauline lvs apetiolate, obovate to oblong, sparsely to moderately hairy and glandular, 1-pinnate with segments again 1-2-pinnatisect, up to 5 cm long; ultimate segments ovate-oblong to subulate, entire, all in one plane; cauline lvs similar to basal, small and less divided near capitula, usually oblong. Involucral bracts sparsely hairy, 2-6 mm long; margins and apex of at least inner bracts membranous. Capitula solitary, c. 2-3 cm diam.; ray florets c. 12-20; ligules white; disc florets numerous, yellow. Scales present to base of receptacle, elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate. Achenes c. 2 mm long, obpyramidal, broadest at apex, square in section, pale brown, with c. 10 thickened smooth ribs; pappus 0.
Strongly foetid annual herb. Stems erect or ascending, (5)-30-40-(60) cm tall, striate, almost glabrous to moderately hairy especially above, usually much-branched from base, rooting in lower part. Basal and lower cauline lvs apetiolate, ovate to obovate-oblong, glabrous to sparsely hairy and glandular, 3-pinnatisect, up to 8 cm long; ultimate segments subulate to linear, entire, not all in one plane giving a somewhat feathery appearance to the lf; cauline lvs similar to basal, smaller and less divided near capitula, usually ovate-oblong. Involucral bracts glabrous to moderately hairy, 2-6 mm long; margins and apex of at least inner bracts membranous. Capitula solitary, c. 15-30-(35) mm diam.; ray florets 8-21, very rarely 0; ligules white, becoming reflexed; disc florets numerous, yellow. Scales usually confined to inner ⅔ of receptacle, linear, acute. Achenes 1.3-1.7 mm long, obconic, narrowed slightly at apex, circular in section, brown, obscurely ribbed; ribs usually prominently tuberculate, rarely whole achene almost smooth; pappus 0.
Annual, biennial, or perennial herbs or sometimes subshrubs, sometimes creeping but not rhizomatous. Lvs usually 1-3-pinnatisect or pinnate and then pinnatisect, rarely not divided, alternate. Capitula usually solitary, terminal, pedunculate; involucral bracts usually in 3 rows, usually at least the inner with membranous margins. Receptacle convex or conic; scales usually present, at least on upper part of receptacle. Outer florets usually ♀, rarely sterile, usually ligulate, rarely tubular, usually white or yellow, rarely purplish; inner florets ☿, tubular. Achenes all similar, usually obconic, terete or square in section, sometimes compressed, smooth, ribbed or tuberculate, eglandular; pappus 0, or a small corona or auricle.
Erect annual. Stems ± glabrous, hollow, striate, 15-70 cm high, sometimes tinged purple toward base. Basal lvs moderately to densely hairy below and on petiole, glabrous above, 2-3-pinnate; ultimate segments ovate, pinnatisect, 5-20 mm long, sessile or shortly petiolate; stem lvs similar to basal but reduced, 1-3-pinnate and shortly petiolate. Umbels 2-5 cm diam.; rays 2-5, c. 1-2 cm long; bracts 0-1, linear to triangular; bracteoles 3-5, ovate-acuminate. Fls 2-6, white, 1-2 mm diam. Fr. ovoid, c. 3 mm long, covered with curved spines and tapering to a smooth beak c. 1/4-⅓ length of ovuliferous part; base of fr. at pedicel apex with a ring of hairs.
Glabrous or hairy, annual, biennial or perennial herbs, with taproots. Lvs 2-4-pinnate; segments broad to narrow. Umbels compound, pedunculate; bracts few or 0, simple; bracteoles several, simple. Petals white or pink, regular or irregular, with apex notched and inflexed; calyx teeth small or 0. Fr. ovoid to linear, terete, usually tapering to beaked apex, usually spinous; commissure narrow; ribs inconspicuous, confined to beak; vittae solitary.
Herbs or small subshrubs, erect or suberect. Lvs usually opposite above and alternate below, simple, entire, pinnately veined. Infl. a terminal bracteate raceme, or fls solitary and axillary. Calyx deeply and ± equally 5-lobed. Corolla strongly zygomorphic; tube gibbous at base abaxially (appearing oblique), otherwise ± cylindric; limb 2-lipped; upper lip 2-lobed; lower lip 3-lobed with a pouch closing the throat. Stamens 4, included. Capsule asymmetric with 2 unequal loculi, the longer adaxial loculus opening by 1 apical pore. Seeds numerous, reticulate-rugose, not winged.
Short-lived perennial; stems to c. 60 cm tall, becoming woody at base, simple or branched. Lvs shortly petiolate. Lamina 20-50 × 3-15 mm, usually linear to lanceolate, occasionally broader, glabrous; base narrowly cuneate. Fls in long, terminal, densely glandular-hairy, rather compact racemes; peduncle long, often = flowering part. Bracts 5-9 mm long, ovate. Calyx 5-8 mm long, deeply lobed, glandular-hairy; lobes elliptic to suborbicular or broad-ovate, equal. Corolla 30-40 mm long to apex of erect upper lip, usually purple or rose, sometimes yellow, whitish or bicoloured, glandular-hairy outside; tube 3-4× calyx, c. 1 cm wide; lobes large and rounded, with recurved margins, the middle lobe of lower lip not concealed; upper lip emarginate. Capsule (8)-12-15 mm long, ovoid or ovoid-oblong, densely glandular-hairy. Seeds c. 1 mm long, oblong, dark, strongly rugose with irregular ridges.
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Small but often stout, pilose, greyish green to yellowish green herb, much branched near base, 20-60-(250) mm high, sometimes decumbent and forming loose mats; stems slender, long-pilose; internodes often hidden by overlapping stipules and lvs. Lvs cauline; petiole 1.5-3 mm long and winged; blade (3)-4-8-(10) × 4-10-(12) mm, 3-partite with each segment ± flabellate and deeply divided into (2)-3-6, oblong to clavate, blunt to subacute lobes, silky pilose on both surfaces; stipules 1.5-3-(4) mm long, adnate to petiole, divided into several ± triangular or sometimes lanceolate-triangular or subulate lobes. Infl. axillary, of small cymes, sessile or with a very short peduncle, usually with upper part of sepals showing above investing stipules; fls sessile or shortly pedicellate. Fr. 2-2.5-(2.8) mm long; hypanthium ellipsoid, flattened, distinctly narrowed below teeth, pale yellow to brown, ribbed, with long hairs on ribs at least above and generally shorter hairs between ribs, sometimes densely hairy; calyx teeth 0.5-0.7 mm long, triangular, ± erect, glabrous except for long hairs on margin and rib; epicalyx minute or 0.
Very small, pilose, yellowish green herb, branched near base, 8-20-(30) mm high, ± decumbent to erect, sometimes almost stemless; stems slender, sparsely pilose; internodes visible or sometimes compacted and hidden by stipules and lvs. Lvs cauline, often much-reduced above; petiole 1-2 mm long and winged; blade up to 5 × 2-5 mm, 3-partite with each segment narrowly flabellate and deeply divided into 1-3, oblong, subacute lobes, with scattered hairs on both surfaces; stipules prominent, 3-4 mm long, adnate to petiole, divided into several triangular to lanceolate lobes. Infl. axillary, of small cymes, ± sessile, just projecting above investing stipules; fls usually ± sessile. Fr. 1.6-2 mm long; hypanthium ± cylindric, slightly flattened, usually not narrowed, rarely slightly narrowed below lobes, reddish brown, ribbed, with very short hairs; calyx teeth 0.5-0.7 mm long, triangular, ± spreading, glabrous or almost glabrous except for long marginal hairs; epicalyx usually minute, sometimes 0.
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Herbs, rarely shrubs or climbers. Lvs alternate, simple and entire to palmately or pinnately compound or lobed; stipules usually 0, sometimes present. Fls ☿ or unisexual, actinomorphic or sometimes outer fls irregular with enlarged outer petals, arranged in axillary or terminal, simple or compound umbels, these sometimes reduced to capitate heads. Calyx adnate to the ovary, with 5 teeth, conspicuous, minute or 0. Petals 5, free, variously inflexed or notched, rarely 0. Stamens usually 5, very rarely 2-4; filaments free; anthers 2-locular. Ovary inferior, usually 2-, very rarely 1-locular; styles 2, free, thickened at the base to form the nectary (stylopodium) over the ovary; ovules solitary, pendulous. Fr. dry, usually splitting down a septum (commissure) to form 2 mericarps, these often suspended from a central axis (carpophore); mericarps usually with 5 primary ribs and 4 secondary (often undeveloped) ribs between, oil canals (vittae) usually positioned in the furrows between the ribs; ribs variously hairy, winged or spinous.
Erect terrestrial biennial, not rooting at nodes. Stems hollow, grooved, striate, up to 80-(100) cm high. Basal lvs 1-2-pinnate, petiolate; ultimate segments deltate or rhombic, lobed and crenate or dentate near apex, 2-4 cm long, ± sessile; stem lvs similar to basal but often apetiolate and becoming 1-pinnate or 3-foliolate with elliptic-obovate, entire or lobed segments. Umbels 2-5 cm diam., compound, ± sessile and lf-opposed, and so appearing bracteate; rays 4-15; bracts and bracteoles 0. Fls numerous, greenish white, c. 1 mm diam. Fr. broadly ovoid, dark brown, 1.5-2 mm long; ribs light brown, filiform.
Glabrous annual, biennial or perennial herbs, usually with taproots, sometimes rooting at nodes. Lvs 1-3-pinnate; segments broad or narrow. Umbels usually compound, often ± sessile and lf-opposed, sometimes shortly pedunculate; bracts few and simple or 0; bracteoles several or 0. Petals white or greenish, regular, with entire, obtuse to acute, usually inflexed apex; calyx teeth minute or 0. Fr. ovoid-oblong to subglobose, slightly flattened laterally, not beaked, spinless; commissure narrow; ribs 5 per mericarp, equal, stout or slender; vittae solitary in furrows.
Procumbent to ascending, aquatic or amphibious perennial, rooting at lower nodes. Stems hollow, grooved, striate, up to 180 cm long. Basal lvs 1-pinnate, petiolate; leaflets in 2-8 pairs, ovate to lanceolate, serrate, sometimes lobed, particularly the terminal leaflet, 1-8-(12) cm long, sessile; stem lvs similar to basal, but uppermost often reduced to 3-5 leaflets. Umbel 2-4 cm diam., compound, subsessile or shortly pedunculate, lf-opposed; rays 4-14; bracts 0-2, linear to lanceolate; bracteoles 4-8, ovate-triangular. Fls numerous, white, 1-2 mm diam. Fr. ovoid, dark brown, 1.5-2.5 mm long; ribs light brown, slender or slightly thickened.
Procumbent to ascending, terrestrial perennial, not rooting at nodes. Lvs pinnately 3-foliolate to 1-2-pinnate; ultimate segments broadly or narrowly ovate to deltate, usually lobed and crenate, c. 5-30 mm long; upper stem lvs similar to lower and basal lvs, but often reduced and 3-foliolate or simple. Umbels compound, usually sessile or subsessile, lf-opposed; rays 2-10-(15); bracts and bracteoles 0. Fls numerous, white. Fr. broadly ovoid, 1.5-2.5 mm long; ribs broad and spongy.
Shrubs, lianes or trees, rarely herbs, usually with milky latex, often poisonous. Lvs opposite or verticillate, rarely alternate, exstipulate, simple, entire. Infl. various, usually cymose, sometimes fls solitary. Fls actinomorphic, ☿, 5-merous. Calyx deeply lobed, often glandular inside; lobes imbricate. Corolla gamopetalous; lobes convolute and twisted in bud, oblique. Stamens (4)-5, inserted in tube or at mouth; filaments usually free, rarely united; anthers free or united round stigma, often sagittate. Pollen grains not adherent. Disc usually present. Ovary superior; carpels 2, often free and united by single style, 1-locular with 2 parietal placentas or 2-locular with a septum and placentas adnate to it. Ovules 2 or more. Fr. entire or composed of 2 separate carpels, baccate, drupaceous or follicular. Seeds mostly winged or with a coma, endospermic.
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Shrubs or trees, usually evergreen. Lvs alternate, rarely opposite, simple, usually green, leathery; stipules very small. Fls ☿ or unisexual, actinomorphic, usually in axillary cymes or fascicles, rarely solitary or racemose. Calyx usually 4-toothed. Petals usually 4, free or connate at base. Stamens 4; filaments free, or united at base; anthers 2-locular; disc 0. Ovary superior, 3- or more locular; style terminal or 0; ovules 1-(2) per loculus, pendulous. Fr. a berry of 3 or more, 1-seeded pyrenes. Seeds with copious endosperm.
Perennial herbs, dying back to a woody rootstock. Lvs basal and usually cauline also, 1-2-ternate; segments ovate to flabellate, crenate. Fls ☿, solitary or in cymose panicles; involucre 0. Sepals 5, > petals, blue, violet, yellow, or red, sometimes white. Petals 5, all spurred; spurs protruding between bases of sepals. Stamens and staminodes many. Carpels free, each with several ovules; styles long. Follicles several, free.
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Annual to perennial, usually taprooted, herbs. Hairs simple to 2-fid or branched. Stems erect, leafy. Lvs entire to pinnatifid; margins entire. Racemes bracteate or ebracteate. Sepals suberect, not saccate. Petals white, lilac or yellow, sometimes 0. Stamens 6, rarely 4, without appendages. Lateral nectaries 4, paired at bases of single stamens or joined in a ring; median nectaries 2, often 2-lobed, joined to lateral nectaries. Style short; stigma capitate or very shortly 2-lobed. Silique linear, dehiscent, not beaked; valves convex, 1-veined. Seeds ovoid, not winged, usually in 1 row per locule.
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Shrubs, trees or climbers, rarely herbs. Lvs usually alternate, rarely opposite, simple and entire to palmately or pinnately compound or lobed; stipules present or 0. Fls ☿ or unisexual, actinomorphic, usually in terminal, rarely axillary umbels, less often in heads, spikes, or racemes, rarely solitary; umbels often in racemes or panicles. Calyx usually not toothed, rarely shallowly 5-toothed. Petals usually 5, sometimes 3-numerous, usually free. Stamens usually as many as petals, rarely more; filaments free; anthers 2-locular. Ovary inferior, rarely 1/2-inferior or superior, 1-many-locular; styles as many as loculi, free or partly connate; ovules usually 1 per loculus, rarely 2, pendulous. Fr. baccate or drupaceous, indehiscent.
Large tree; bark dark grey-brown, peeling in thin flakes, deep pink beneath. Semi-juvenile lvs (on lowest branches of mature trees) somewhat flattened, 3-11 mm long, linear-subulate, acute, incurved. Adult lvs (from coning branches) ± flattened, 5-9 mm long, ovate or ovate-elliptic, ± obtuse, slightly keeled, strongly imbricate, incurved. ♂ strobili 3-5 cm long, narrow-cylindric. ♀ cones towards top of tree, 9-13 cm diam., broadly oblong-ellipsoid or subglobose, green at maturity; emergent part of scale (prickle) 6-10 mm long and c. 2 mm wide at 1/2 way to apex, pungent, directed forward.
Pyramidal, columnar or umbrella-shaped trees with regularly whorled branches, often becoming flat-headed with age, mostly monoecious, sometimes dioecious. Bark resinous, the surface peeling. Lvs persistent for many years, sometimes pungent-tipped, large and subulate to ovate, or small and scale-like, often closely set and imbricate. ♂ strobili (cones) large, solitary or fascicled. ♀ cones globose to nearly ovoid, ripening in 2-3 years; scales becoming woody, sometimes winged; ovule adherent to scale by ligule (outgrowth of scale). Mature cone often massive; seed ± immersed in ligular outgrowth.
Evergreen, resinous trees, mostly monoecious, sometimes dioecious. Buds lacking scales, but protected by lvs. Lvs generally broad and flattened, sometimes narrow or subulate, spirally arranged; veins parallel. ♂ strobili (cones) axillary or terminal, cylindric; stamens (microsporophylls) numerous, spirally arranged; filaments expanded; anthers (microsporangia) many to each stamen, borne on lower surface. ♀ cones (strobili) terminal, globular to broad-ovoid; bracts 0; ovuliferous scales (megasporophylls) spirally arranged, imbricate, with a single ovule on the upper surface. Fr. woody and sometimes massive, disintegrating when mature. Seed winged or not; cotyledons 2 or 4.
Glabrous or mealy lianes with milky latex. Lvs opposite, entire. Fls few, in pedunculate axillary cymes. Calyx large and foliose, divided to near base, eglandular. Corolla slightly contorted in bud, usually campanulate, sometimes salverform, 5-lobed; tube inflated at base; lobes somewhat erect at first. Corona attached to corolla tube, of 5 ovate or ligulate scales appressed to the staminal tube. Filaments united in a short tube; anthers terminated by a small incurved membrane. Follicles leathery, smooth, sometimes inflated.
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Evergreen trees and shrubs. Lvs alternate, petiolate, serrate or entire. Infl. a terminal bracteate panicle; bracteoles 0. Calyx deeply 5-lobed, persistent. Corolla urceolate, the 5 lobes short and revolute. Stamens 10, included; anthers with 2 slender apical awns. Disc usually 10-lobed. Ovary (4)-5-celled. Fr. a subglobose or globose berry, reddish, granular or warty outside; flesh mealy with the numerous seeds embedded.
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Fruticose biennials, not spiny. Hairs both glandular, subsessile, and eglandular, cottony, cobwebby, or felted. Lvs alternate, petiolate, simple. Capitula homogamous, globose or broadly ovoid, in racemes or corymbs. Involucral bracts in several series, linear, imbricate, glabrous or with cobwebby hairs, the outer recurved at fruiting; margins denticulate or glabrous; apex spinous, inwardly hooked. Receptacle flat, with stiff, linear-subulate scales. Florets ☿, all tubular. Corolla glabrous or glandular, 5-lobed, purplish or white. Anthers acuminate at apex, sagittate at base; filaments glabrous. Style branches linear, cuneate, erect, not appressed. Achenes oblong to obovoid, compressed, rugose; achene insertion basal; pappus hairs in several unequal rows, stiff, pale, scabrid, free to base.
Plants openly branched, 1-1.5 m tall. Stems grooved, glabrous or with cobwebby eglandular and subsessile glandular hairs. Basal lvs broadly deltoid to ovate, green and sparsely hairy above, whitish and densely felted beneath, (15)-20-40 × (15)-20-35 cm; base truncate to cordate; apex subacute to obtuse; margin dentate with apiculate vein endings; petioles solid. Upper lvs similar to basal, becoming smaller. Infl. corymbose; peduncles (3)-4-9 cm long. Capitula (15)-20-25 × (20)-30-40 mm. Involucral bracts straw yellow or yellow-green, glabrous or with sparse cobwebby hairs; margins smooth. Florets c. = involucral bracts; corolla reddish purple. Achenes 6-7 mm long; pappus 1.5-3.5 mm long.
Plants openly branched, 1-1.5 m tall. Stems grooved, with sparse to dense cobwebby eglandular and subsessile glandular hairs, rarely glabrous or farinose. Basal lvs deltoid to broadly deltoid, green and sparsely hairy above, whitish and densely felted beneath, (15)-25-40-(55) × (10)-13-30-(35) cm; base cordate; apex subacute to obtuse; margin crenate to bluntly dentate with apiculate vein endings; petioles hollow. Upper lvs similar to basal, becoming smaller. Infl. racemose; peduncles 0-1-(3) cm long. Capitula (12)-15-20 × (14)-20-30 mm. Involucral bracts straw yellow, greenish or purplish, glabrous or with sparse to dense cobwebby hairs; margins with short, stiff, tapered, forwardly directed denticles, at least on the innermost bracts. Florets = or > involucral bracts; corolla reddish purple. Achenes 5-7 mm long; pappus 1.5-3.5 mm long.
Annual rosette herb. Stems sprawling, ascending, up to 30 cm long, rarely 0, with subappressed felty or woolly tomentum and sparse coarse dark multicellular hairs above. Lvs lyrate-pinnatifid to 2-pinnatisect, petiolate, (3)-5-30 × 1-5-(10) cm, with broadly ovate to deltoid terminal lobe and 3-5 pairs of lanceolate, oblong, or oblanceolate lateral lobes, green with scattered short hairs above, silvery with appressed felted tomentum beneath; margins toothed; stem lvs amplexicaul. Capitula solitary on erect scapes. Involucre 1-1.5 cm diam. Involucral bracts in 4-5 series, glabrous or sparsely tomentose, greenish; outermost bracts narrowed into a linear terminal appendage; inner bracts oblong, obtuse, usually scarious or dark on margins. Ligules 1.5-2.5 cm long, pale yellow, tinged greenish or purplish beneath. Disc florets dark. Achenes obovoid, weakly flattened with narrow lateral ridges and a weak dorsal ridge, finely wrinkled, dark brown, 2-2.5 mm long, densely covered with long, buff to mauve woolly hairs. Pappus scales brown or purple, scarious, c. 1 mm long.
Annual to perennial herbs; stems trailing or erect; latex 0. Lvs in basal rosettes and alternate on stems, lyrate-pinnatifid to 2-pinnatisect, toothed. Capitula axillary, solitary, on long peduncles. Involucral bracts free, in several series; outermost row small, narrowed to a linear appendage; inner rows progressively longer, oblong, without appendages. Receptacle flat or weakly convex, alveolate, glabrous; scales 0. Outer florets ligulate, sterile. Disc florets ☿. Achenes obovoid to obconic, without furrows on the dorsal side. Pappus of 1 row of usually 4-8 short oblong scarious scales.
Annual to perennial herbs; stems trailing or erect; latex 0. Lvs in rosettes and alternate on stems, lyrate-pinnatifid, toothed, or entire. Capitula axillary, solitary, on long peduncles. Involucral bracts free, in several series; outermost row small, narrowed to a linear to spathulate appendage; inner rows progressively longer, oblong, without appendages. Receptacle flat, alveolate, ciliate; scales 0. Outer florets ligulate, ♀. Disc florets ☿ or the inner ♂. Achenes obovoid to obconic, with 2 furrows on the dorsal side. Pappus of 2 rows of oblong scarious scales, the outer very short, the inner longer.
Perennial. Stems trailing or decumbent, up to 1 m long, with dense appressed white tomentum. Lvs entire and toothed or lyrate-pinnatifid, densely silvery white-tomentose, petiolate, (3)-6-15 × 1-3.5 cm; terminal lobe ovate; lateral lobes oblong, alternate. Capitula solitary on long erect peduncles. Involucre 2-3 cm diam. Involucral bracts in 5 series, brownish, scarious, woody at base; outermost bracts narrowed into a tomentose linear appendage (1)-3-7 mm long; inner bracts oblong or obovate, tomentose in centre, scarious on margins. Ligules c. 3 cm long, cream, yellow, orange, brick-red or purple. Disc florets dark purplish. Achenes broadly obconic, with 2 furrows on 1 side, 2.5-4 mm long, densely villous with white to yellowish hairs. Pappus scales brown, scarious, oblong, up to 6 × 1.5 mm.
Annual to perennial herbs. Hairs glandular and/or eglandular or 0. Lvs opposite, exstipulate, linear-subulate to orbicular. Infl. cymose, few- to many-flowered; bracts and sepals herbaceous or with scarious margins; epicalyx 0. Sepals (4)-5, free. Petals (4)-5, white, rarely pink, entire; coronal scales 0. Stamens 10 or fewer. Styles (2)-3-(5). Fr. an ovoid to cylindric capsule, dehiscing by twice as many acute teeth as the styles, sessile. Seeds many, reniform, smooth or tuberculate, not winged.
Annual. Stems erect to ascending, 2-15-(30) cm tall; hairs eglandular, very short, backwardly curved. Lvs distant, lanceolate to ovate, acute, (1)-3-5-veined, with scabrid hairs, (2)-3-5 × (1)-2-3 mm. Infl. compact at flowering, elongating at fruiting. Bracts leaflike, herbaceous. Sepals 5, ovate-acuminate, 2-4 mm long, with scabrid hairs, 3-5-veined; midvein prominent; margin scarious. Petals 5, 1/2-⅔ length of sepals, narrow-elliptic, white, entire. Styles 3. Capsule flask-shaped, swollen at base, dehiscing by 6 short teeth, = or slightly > sepals. Seeds dark brown, tuberculate, 0.5 mm long; strophiole 0.
Annual herbs with yellow latex. Lvs pinnatifid, spiny, usually glaucous, toothed. Fls solitary or in lax leafy cymes, with 2-3 bracts. Sepals 2-3, entire, free, falling as fl. opens, horned. Petals 4-6, crumpled in bud, usually white, cream or yellow. Stigma 4-lobed; style usually short, rarely almost 0. Capsule ovoid, spiny, opening from above by usually 4 valves. Seeds globose, with thin arillar crest.
Annual herb. Stems ± stout, decumbent to erect, sparsely spiny or sometimes without spines, 20-60 cm tall. Rosette lvs few, withering and falling early; cauline lvs persistent. All lvs sessile, glaucous, pale near veins, tapering gradually to base; lamina ovate to obovate, pinnatifid, 7-15 × 2-5 cm, coarsely toothed; each tooth tipped with a long yellowish spine. Fls solitary or in lax leafy cymes, closely subtended by 2-3 leaflike bracts. Sepals entire, spiny, but without lateral spines, glaucous, with a spine-tipped horn near apex. Petals 2-3 cm long, narrow-ovate, cream. Style 2-3 mm long; stigma magenta. Capsule ellipsoid, spiny, 1.5-3 × 0.7-1.5 cm, dehiscing by 4-(6) valves in distal ⅓. Seeds globose, reticulate, very dark brown, c. 1.5 mm long.
Aromatic, much-branched, glabrous shrub up to c. 1 m tall, becoming distinctly woody toward base. Stems striate. Lvs glaucous to green, ovate, cuneately narrowed to winged petiole, 2-3-pinnatisect, up to c. 12 × 5 cm; segments all in one plane, very variable in width, from all similar and linear or subulate, to primary segments broad and pinnatisect to c. 1/2 way with narrow ultimate segments; uppermost cauline lvs smaller and sometimes 1-pinnatisect. Involucral bracts 5-15 mm long; margins membranous; at least the inner bracts with large apical flap. Capitula few to many in corymbs, or sometimes solitary, 20-50-(80) mm diam.; ray florets (8)-12-28; ligules usually white, rarely pink; disc florets numerous, yellow. Achenes pale brown, eglandular; achenes of ray florets 3-5 mm long, 3-(4)-angled, with 2-3 angles broadly winged and others narrowly winged, faces smooth or shallowly ribbed, and an irregularly lobed corona 1-1.5 mm long; achenes of disc florets 2-3 mm long, obconic, laterally flattened, mostly ± 4-angled with inner angle winged, surfaces smooth or ribbed, and an irregularly lobed corona up to 0.5 mm long; innermost achenes often ± terete, 10-ribbed, not winged.
Perennials, woody at base. Lvs entire to 1-3-pinnatisect, alternate. Capitula few to many in corymbs, or sometimes solitary, terminal, pedunculate; involucral bracts in 3-4 rows, with membranous margins. Receptacle convex or conic; scales 0. Outer florets ♀, ligulate, yellow, white or pink; inner florets ☿, tubular. Achenes dimorphic: those of ray florets 3-angled, with 0-3 wings, sometimes coalesced into groups of 2-9; those of disc florets obconic, terete, 4-angled, or somewhat flattened, with 0-2 wings. Pappus a small corona or 0.
Glabrous perennial herbs; roots fusiform. Stems erect, leafy. Lvs simple, crenate, serrate, or pinnatifid, usually variable on one plant. Infl. a terminal ebracteate panicle; lateral axillary racemes often present. Sepals erecto-patent, not saccate. Petals white. Stamens 6, without appendages. Lateral nectaries 4, beside bases of single stamens; median nectaries 2, between bases of paired stamens. Style short; stigma large, capitate or shallowly 2-lobed. Silicle ellipsoid or spherical, septate, dehiscent; valves convex with indistinct network of veins. Seeds ovoid, compressed, not winged, in 2 rows per locule.
Perennial arising from stout white fusiform roots. Stems stout, erect, grooved, branched above, to 130 cm tall. Rosette lvs elliptic to ovate to oblong, crenate or serrate; lamina (5)-10-30-(50) × 4-10-(15) cm; petiole 5-20-(50) cm long. Lower stem lvs similar in size and outline, but often deeply pinnatifid; upper stem lvs sessile, linear-lanceolate, toothed or entire, 4-12-(20) × 0.5-1-(3) cm. Panicle to 35 cm long; lateral axillary racemes to 20 cm long. Sepals 2-3 × 1-1.5 mm. Petals 4-5 ×2 mm. Silicle abortive, narrow-cylindric, 2-3 mm long.
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Annual, biennial or perennial herbs or shrubs, taprooted or rhizomatous. Lvs usually pinnately divided, alternate. Capitula in terminal, pedunculate panicles, racemes or corymbs; involucral bracts in few rows, with membranous margins. Receptacle flat to hemispheric; scales 0, but pilose hairs sometimes present. Outer florets ♀ or ☿, tubular, brown, red, or yellow; inner florets ☿ or ♂, tubular. Achenes all similar, obovoid, subterete or flattened, smooth, faintly striate, or 2-ribbed; pappus 0 or a small scarious ring.
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Herbs, shrubs or climbers, rarely trees or dwarf succulents, usually with milky latex. Lvs usually opposite, less commonly verticillate, simple, exstipulate, sometimes reduced to scales. Fls in axillary or terminal cymes or cymose umbels, ☿, actinomorphic, 5-merous. Calyx deeply lobed; lobes imbricate or valvate. Corolla gamopetalous; lobes contorted or valvate in bud. Corona usually present, simple or of separate scales, in a single or double row. Anthers united in a ring and usually adnate to stigma, forming a gynostegium. Pollen usually aggregated in pollinia, sometimes in tetrads, attached to translators (organs for transferring pollen, usually arm-like processes). Disc 0. Ovary superior. Carpels 2, free below, united at the disc-like stigma. Fr. a pair of follicles, often only one developing. Seeds with apical coma of long silky hairs.
Rhizomes erect to long-creeping, bearing clathrate scales. Fronds entire to 1-5-pinnate. Sporangia borne on abaxial surface of frond, in elongated sori along veins, protected by elongated indusia. Annulus vertical. Homosporous; spores lacking chlorophyll.
Perennial herbs, rarely annuals or shrubs. Lvs alternate or all basal, simple, entire to toothed, rarely more deeply incised. Capitula 1-numerous, mostly in cymes or panicles. Involucral bracts in 2-several rows, equal or imbricate, usually herbaceous toward apices, sometimes wholly herbaceous or chartaceous. Receptacle flat or convex; scales 0. Outer florets usually ♀, rarely sterile, usually ligulate, very rarely filiform, few to numerous in 1-2 rows; ligules white to red, purple or blue. Inner florets ☿, tubular, few to numerous. Achenes all similar, obovoid to cylindric, compressed, glabrous or hairy and sometimes glandular, often 4-5-ribbed; pappus of scabrid hairs in 1 row, sometimes with an outer row of short hairs or scales.
Perennial herb with long rhizomes; stems erect, terete to slightly ribbed, with short, simple hairs in lines or stripes above, at least in infl., becoming glabrous below, branched only above, 50-150 cm tall. Mid cauline lvs narrow-lanceolate, apetiolate and cuneate, acute to acuminate, entire or serrulate to remotely serrate, glabrous or sparsely hairy about margins 70-150-(200) × 6-12-(15) mm; uppermost lvs smaller. Infl. a many-headed, narrow panicle. Capitula c. 15-25 mm diam.; peduncles with lines or stripes of simple hairs. Involucral bracts somewhat unequal; inner bracts linear-lanceolate, acute to acuminate, glabrous, with a diamond-shaped green patch near apex and extending down midrib, also sometimes tinged or spotted purple, 5-6 mm long; outer bracts not wholly herbaceous, c. 3-4 mm long. Ray florets numerous; ligules usually white, sometimes flushed pink or violet, 8-12 mm long. Achenes subcylindric to obovoid, slightly compressed, 4-5-ribbed, 2-2.5 mm long, with sparse antrorse hairs.
Perennial herb with short stout rhizomes; stems erect, terete, with sparse long simple and short glandular hairs all around above, becoming eglandular below, branched only above, up to c. 80 cm tall. Mid cauline lvs lanceolate, apetiolate and auriculate, acute, entire, sparsely to moderately hispidulous, 40-120 × 5-10 mm; uppermost lvs smaller. Infl. a few-headed, ± flat-topped corymb. Capitula 25-50 mm diam.; peduncles densely clothed in stalked glandular hairs. Involucral bracts ± equal; inner bracts linear-lanceolate, attenuate, glandular, tinged purple particularly toward apex, 9-12 mm long; outer bracts more herbaceous. Ray florets numerous; ligules pink to purple or reddish, c. 12-15 mm long. Ovary densely covered in antrorse hairs; mature achenes not seen.
Perennial herbs with short to long rhizomes; stems erect, terete to slightly ribbed, usually with short simple hairs in lines or stripes above and glabrous below, sometimes completely glabrous, branched only above, (15)-40-150 cm tall. Mid cauline lvs elliptic, oblong, or ovate- to narrow-lanceolate, narrowed or broad at base and slightly auriculate to amplexicaul, entire, or serrulate to coarsely serrate, usually glabrous, sometimes sparsely hairy about margins, 50-100-(170) × 10-30 mm; uppermost lvs smaller, sometimes cuneate, sometimes ± triangular and broad-based. Infl. a few- to many-headed narrow panicle or ± flat-topped cyme. Capitula 25-50 mm diam.; peduncles usually with lines or stripes of simple hairs, sometimes glabrous. Involucral bracts ± equal to very unequal; inner bracts oblong- to linear-lanceolate, acute to acuminate, glabrous, with a diamond-shaped to diffuse green patch near apex and extending down midrib, also sometimes tinged purple, 5-8 mm long; outer bracts green at tip to wholly herbaceous, erect to spreading, and from 2 mm long to = inner bracts. Ray florets numerous; ligules usually violet to blue, rarely white, 7-14 mm long. Ovary with scattered antrorse hairs; mature achenes not seen.
Tap-rooted annual or short-lived perennial herb, glabrous or rarely with a few hairs on upper stem; stems erect, terete, sparingly branched below, 20-200 -(300) cm tall, rarely stems resprouting and somewhat woody after flowering. Mid cauline lvs lanceolate to linear, apetiolate and cuneate, acute, crenulate or remotely serrulate, 35-150 × 3-10-(20) mm; lowermost lvs mostly petiolate, elliptic, cuneate, obtuse; uppermost lvs linear. Infl. a many-headed diffuse panicle. Capitula 2-5 mm diam. Involucral bracts very unequal; inner bracts narrow-oblong to subulate, acute to slightly acuminate, green toward apex and along midrib, purplish at apex and margins, 5-8 mm long; outer bracts not wholly herbaceous, c. 2 mm long. Ray florets numerous; ligules white to pale purple, c. 1-2 mm long. Achenes subcylindric to ellipsoid, compressed, 4-5-ribbed, 1.5-2.2 mm long, with sparse antrorse hairs.
Annual to perennial herbs, sometimes shrubs or trees, rarely epiphytes or climbers. Lvs usually opposite or alternate, sometimes whorled, often all basal, simple and entire to variously dissected, rarely compound; stipules 0. Fls (florets) commonly 5-merous, ☿, neuter or unisexual, sessile, nearly always in compact heads (capitula) on a common receptacle, sometimes individually subtended by bracts (scales), the whole capitulum surrounded by few to many bracts, very rarely florets solitary in panicles or capitula reduced to 1 floret. Capitula solitary or few to numerous in dense or diffuse cymes, panicles or less often spikes, racemes or other infl. types. Calyx epigynous, modified as pappus of scales, awns or hairs, sometimes reduced to a small corona or 0. Corolla epigynous, actinomorphic and filiform or tubular, or zygomorphic with an extended limb (ligule), often the outer florets ligulate (ray florets) and the inner tubular (disc florets) or all florets either ligulate or tubular. Stamens as many as corolla lobes and alternate with them; filaments free; anthers 2-locular, usually connate into a tube, very rarely scarcely connate, dehiscing introrsely. Ovary inferior, 1-locular; style 2-fid, often undivided in ♂ florets; ovules solitary, anatropous. Fr. usually an achene, often crowned by a persistent pappus, rarely a drupe.
Rhizomes short, erect, stout, densely clothed with brown scales. Stipes 10-20 cm long, scaly especially at base, green or purplish red. Laminae elliptic or narrowly elliptic, 2-3-pinnate at base, 45-100 × 18-40 cm. Primary pinnae in up to 30 pairs, narrowly ovate, the longest about middle of lamina, to 25 × 4 cm. Secondary pinnae narrowly ovate, to 2 cm long. Sori 1-2 mm long, ± oblong, the lower ones hooked, the upper straight, in rows either side of midrib of secondary pinnae, nearer midrib than margin, protected by persistent flap-like indusia.
Terrestrial ferns. Rhizomes erect to long-creeping, scaly. Fronds 1-3-pinnate, scaly at least on stipes; veins free. Sori round or usually elongate, on one side of a vein, sometimes also developed distally on the second side. Indusia reniform, elongate or hook-shaped, attached laterally, opening towards midrib. Spores monolete.
Prostrate to procumbent, much-branched, densely white or greyish farinose, short-lived perennial herb, sometimes mat-forming. Stems slightly woody at base, terete, slender but wiry. Petioles 0-1.5-(3) mm long; lamina 1-10 × 0.8-6 mm, orbicular to broad-elliptic, broad-ovate or obovate, entire; base subcordate to rounded or broad-cuneate. Fls axillary, solitary or in glomerules of 2-10. ♂ fls: mostly near branch apices; perianth 1-1.5 mm long, whitish or greyish; segments c. 1/2 length of tube. ♀ fls: c. 1 mm long. Fruiting bracteoles rhombic-triangular, dentate. Fr. c. 1 mm diam., circular or nearly so; pericarp easily removed. Testa brownish green.
Low, spreading, dense, much-branched, dioecious subshrub, densely covered with silvery grey scales, with main stems often slightly horizontal and rather slender. Shoots strongly angular, with scattered glandular hairs. Lvs subsessile, 1-2.7 × 2-4 mm, linear or oblong-linear, entire; base attenuate; apex obtuse or nearly so. ♂ fls in continuous or interrupted terminal spikes or panicles. ♀ fls solitary or few in axillary clusters, monomorphic; bracteoles united for c. ⅓ length, to 3.5 × 3.5 mm at fruiting, often smaller, broad-ovate to rhombic, entire; united part becoming indurate; free parts becoming ± swollen, spongy; apex obtuse. Seed c. 2 mm diam., circular, with radicles protruding.
Erect, monoecious annual, sparingly branched, farinose at least when young, sometimes brownish purple or reddish purple. Stems to 2.5 m high, much less in impoverished soil, stout, angular. Lvs below infl. (excluding those at base of plant) with petioles to 5 cm long; lamina 5-30 × 3-20 cm, triangular-hastate, ovate, or sagittate-ovate, narrower in infl., irregularly dentate, sinuate, to almost entire; base deeply or shallowly cordate to truncate; apex rounded to acute. Infl. terminal, narrow-paniculate, to 40 cm long; branches slender. ♂ fls: perianth c. 0.5 mm long, green with hyaline margin. ♀ fls: dimorphic, most with 2 bracteoles and perianth 0, otherwise with 5-lobed perianth and bracteoles 0. Bracteoles free, orbicular or suborbicular, very shortly stalked, entire, without appendages or tubercles, strongly accrescent, 6-12-(15) mm diam. at fruiting. Fr. circular to broad-elliptic, flattened, dimorphic: in perianth fls 1.5-2.5 mm diam. and horizontal, in bracteolate fls 2.5-4.3 mm diam. and vertical; pericarp removed fairly easily. Testa shining black, almost smooth.
Monoecious or dioecious, annual herbs or small shrubs, glabrous or farinose. Stems green, often striped reddish or white. Lvs generally alternate, flat, toothed or lobed, often hastate, sometimes entire; upper lvs much smaller. Fls in glomerules; glomerules aggregated in panicles, dense spikes or sometimes solitary. ♂ fls: bracteoles 0; perianth segments (3)-5; stamens (3)-5. ♀ fls: bracteoles 2, accrescent and enclosing fr., free or somewhat fused, entire or dentate, often lobed near base, often tuberculate or with appendages on bracts, sometimes spongy inside; perianth usually 0, if present then segments 5. Ovary superior; stigmas 2. Fr. pericarp membranous, often easily detached. Seeds sometimes dimorphic, usually vertical, rarely horizontal; testa usually smooth; radicle often protruding.
Much-branched, prostrate or widespreading to suberect, farinose, monoecious annual, often with erect main stem and stiff horizontal branches, sometimes mat-forming. Stems ribbed, ± slender. Petiole to 1.5 cm long; lamina 2-7 × 0.3-4 cm, mostly linear-lanceolate, lanceolate or elliptic, sometimes ovate and then often hastate, rarely lobed on 1 side only, otherwise lamina nearly always entire, green or grey-green; base narrow-cuneate to cuneate; apex acute to obtuse. Infl. lvs (even down to base of branches) smaller, narrower, with shorter petioles. Infl. long, spicate; fls in glomerules; upper glomerules sometimes subtended by small bract-like lvs. ♂ fls: perianth c. 0.5 mm long; segments green with hyaline margin. ♀ fls: bracteoles 1-1.5 mm long at anthesis, sessile, triangular or rhombic-triangular, often triangular-hastate, otherwise entire or with a few marginal or sometimes central dorsal teeth, sometimes with appendages. Fruiting bracteoles (1.5)-2.5-8.5- (11) × 1-5-(6) mm, sometimes unequal, thin, green or grey-farinose, the lower part united; apex acute or acuminate. Fr. enclosed or apex exserted from bracteoles, 1.4-2.2-(3.2) mm diam., circular, laterally flattened; pericarp easily removed. Testa shining black, almost smooth.
Much-branched, prostrate, spreading to suberect, ± farinose annual monoecious herb. Stems ± slender; ribs and nodes often purplish or dark red. Petiole of lower lvs usually 1-2.5 cm long, slender; lamina of lower lvs 1-9 × 0.75-8 cm, mostly narrowly to broadly triangular-hastate, sometimes ± ovate or rhombic-ovate, green, glaucous or sometimes reddish, sparsely to prominently and deeply dentate above basal lobes; base usually truncate, sometimes broad- cuneate or sagittate; apex acute or subacute. Infl. lvs smaller and more often ovate to lanceolate. Infl. of long reddish or brownish spikes; fls in glomerules. ♂ fls: perianth 0.5-0.8 mm long with margins hyaline. ♀ fls: bracteoles 1-2 mm long at anthesis, sessile, triangular-hastate, broad-ovate or rhombic-ovate, usually dentate, less commonly entire, generally with appendages. Fruiting bracteoles to 9 × 6.5 mm, sometimes unequal, almost free or shortly united. Fr. enclosed by bracteoles, 1-2.5 mm long, ± circular, laterally flattened; pericarp easily removed; larger-fruited plants with bracteoles often larger and lacking appendages. Testa shining black or deep brown, smooth.
Monoecious, erect, bushy, ± grey or whitish farinose annual to c. 1 m tall. Stems terete or nearly so, pale yellowish, stout, woody towards base. Petioles to c. 1 cm long; lamina 2.5 × 1.5-4 cm, rhombic-triangular or rhombic-ovate, to lanceolate towards stem apices, deeply and irregularly dentate; base narrow- to broad-cuneate; apex acute; infl. lvs similar but smaller. Fls in axillary glomerules and short terminal spikes; spikes leafy almost to the apex. ♂ fls maturing well before ♀; perianth c. 1 mm long, pale with indistinct margin; segments incurved. ♀ fls: bracteoles c. 1.5 mm long at anthesis, rhombic-triangular or rhombic, united below middle, dentate (teeth 1 or few on each side), strongly accrescent. Fruiting bracteoles 3-4 × 3-4 mm, conspicuously veined, indurate towards base, with several tubercle appendages around middle. Fr. 1.5-2 mm diam., circular or nearly so, laterally flattened; pericarp easily removed. Testa brown.
Herb 1-1.5 m tall. Petiole to c. 7 cm long on lower lvs, much shorter on upper. Lamina 6-25 × 3-11 cm, elliptic-ovate, with short glandular hairs mainly on veins; base decurrent (lower lvs) or cuneate (upper lvs); apex acute to short-acuminate. Fls pendulous on recurved pedicels c. 2 cm long. Calyx 1.3-2 cm long, lobed to c. 1/2 way; lobes ± triangular, acute to acuminate. Corolla 2.3-3 cm long, campanulate, brownish purple or mauvish, tinged green; lobes c. 5 mm long, acute. Berry broad-ovoid and slightly flattened, 1.2-1.8 cm diam., glossy black with purple juice.
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Evergreen, ☿ or andromonoecious shrubs or small trees with thin, twiggy branches. Lvs rather small, apparently in opposite, unequal pairs, but the smaller really a leaflike stipule; petiole short; lamina usually toothed. Fls small, in axillary racemes or fascicles; bracts small. Sepals 4-5-(6), valvate, persistent. Petals 0. Stamens numerous or as few as 5 or 10; filaments glabrous; 5 glands present between sepals and stamens. Ovary superior, 1-locular; placentae 2-4, bearing many ovules. Style simple. Fr. a berry, reddish, sometimes dehiscent at apex. Seeds few.
Plants free-floating, forming extensive red-coloured mats, up to 3 × 3 cm, broadly ovate to elliptic in outline or broader than long, irregularly branched, with secondary branchlets decreasing in length only slightly towards the distal end of primary branches. Lvs 2-lobed; upper lobe ovate, 1-2 mm long. Roots to 7 cm long, entire.
Floating aquatic ferns with short stems bearing long roots. Lvs monomorphic, c. 0.5-2 mm long, imbricate, lacking veins, 2-lobed; upper lobe green and usually papillate; lower lobe hyaline. Mega- and microsporangia borne separately in stalked sporocarps on the lower lobes of the lvs. Spores trilete.
Plants free-floating, forming extensive red-coloured mats, to 2.5 × 2 cm, broadly triangular or 5-angled in outline, regularly 2-pinnately divided, with secondary branchlets which decrease markedly in length towards proximal end of primary branches. Lvs 2-lobed; upper lobe ovate, 1-2 mm long. Roots to 5 cm long, bearing fine lateral rootlets.
Glabrous, much-branched shrub up to c. 4 m tall. Stems ribbed, mealy when young, becoming glabrous. Lvs obovate-oblong to oblong-elliptic, apetiolate and cuneate, obtuse to subacute, coriaceous, remotely serrate or crenate, mealy when young, becoming glabrous, puncticulate, (10)-15-30-(40) × (5)-7-10-(15) mm; lvs subtending glomerules smaller, often elliptic and entire. Capitula 3-5 mm diam. at anthesis, ± sessile in axillary and terminal glomerules of 2-20, fewer and sometimes solitary in ♀ plants. Inner involucral bracts elliptic-oblong, glabrous, green with pale membranous margin, glabrous, 3-4.5 mm long; outer bracts ± orbicular, mealy, c. 2 mm long. Corolla of ♂ florets cream, of ♀ florets inconspicuous and exceeded by pappus. Achenes obovoid, terete, 10-ribbed, glabrous; pappus minutely denticulate.
Dioecious shrubs or perennial herbs. Lvs alternate, simple, entire, serrate or lobed. Capitula in small terminal or axillary glomerules. Involucral bracts in 3-many rows, imbricate, ± membranous. Receptacle flat or convex; scales 0. ♀ florets filiform, numerous. ♂ florets tubular, numerous. Achenes all similar, ellipsoid or obovoid, compressed or terete, ribbed; pappus of hairs in 1 row, that of sterile ♂ florets shorter.
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Monoecious or dioecious trees or shrubs. Lvs stipulate, opposite or alternate. ♂ and ♀ fls mixed or separate in short terminal racemes. ♂ fls: calyx with 4-5 segments imbricate in bud; petals 4-5; stamens variable in number; filaments shortly connate at base. ♀ fls: calyx and petals as for ♂; ovary 3-celled with a single ovule in each cell; styles 3, deeply 2-fid. Fr. spherical, separating from the persistent axis at maturity, fleshy, becoming hard; seeds oblong.
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Succulent-stemmed herbs, occasionally small shrubs. Lvs simple, alternate or opposite, sometimes whorled, exstipulate. Fls solitary or in cymes, very irregular, ☿. Sepals usually 3, sometimes 5, the posterior (lowermost because of pedicel twisting) sepal spurred, enlarged and petaloid. Petals 5 (nearly always appearing as 3 because of union), very often unequal. Stamens 5; filaments short and flattened; anthers connate around ovary. Ovary superior, 5-celled; placentation axile; ovules numerous; stigmas sessile or nearly so, 5-lobed. Fr. usually a succulent capsule opening violently with the 5 valves twisting and coiling, rarely a berry. Seeds non-endospermic.
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Biennial, sometimes short-lived perennial. Stems branched above, (20)-40-60-(90) cm tall. Rosette lvs deeply lyrate-pinnatifid, sparsely hairy, especially on petiole and margins, or glabrous, (3)-7-25 × (1)-2-6 cm; terminal lobe ovate to oblong; lateral lobes in (4)-5-8 or more pairs, the distal pair usually > width of terminal lobe; margins entire, sinuate, toothed or lobed. Upper stem lvs deeply pinnatifid with deflexed lobes at base; terminal lobe narrow-oblong or cuneiform, usually 3-lobed or 3-fid; lateral lobes in (1)-2 pairs, linear. Racemes to 30 cm tall; pedicels erecto-patent at fruiting, c. 5 mm long. Sepals glabrous, 3-4 × 0.8-1.5 mm. Petals 6-8 × 2-3 mm. Silique erecto-patent, (30)-40-70 × 1.5-2.5 mm; style 1-1.5 mm long.
Glabrous biennial to perennial. Stems branched above, 30-60-(100) cm tall. Rosette lvs lyrate-pinnate, (5)-10-20-(25) × 1-3-(4) mm; terminal lobe rounded-oblong; lateral lobes in (0)-1-3-(5) pairs, the distal pair > width of terminal lobe; margins toothed or sinuate. Upper stem lvs becoming simple, obovate or ovate, coarsely toothed. Racemes to 30 cm tall; pedicels erecto-patent to ± patent, 4-7 mm long. Sepals glabrous, 3-4 × 1-1.5 mm. Petals 5-6 × 1.5-2 mm. Silique erect, (15)-20-(30) × 1-1.5 mm; style 2-3 mm long.
Biennial, sometimes perennial, herbs with stout taproot and many lesser roots. Hairs simple, or 0. Stems erect, leafy. Lvs often glossy, glabrous or sparsely hairy; margins usually bluntly toothed; lower lvs lyrate-pinnate or pinnatifid; upper lvs becoming ± sessile, amplexicaul, either deeply pinnatifid or shallowly lobed to toothed. Racemes ebracteate, rarely bracteate. Sepals suberect, the inner saccate. Petals yellow. Stamens 6, without appendages. Lateral nectaries 2, crescent-shaped at base of single stamens; median nectaries 2, rod-shaped between paired stamens. Style short; stigma slightly 2-lobed. Silique linear, dehiscent; valves with strong median and weaker reticulate lateral veins; beak 0. Seeds ellipsoid, not winged, in 1 row per locule.
Perennial herbs woody toward base, or shrubs. Lvs opposite, petiolate, simple, entire to serrate. Infl. a lax corymb. Involucral bracts in 3-4 rows, unequal, mostly chartaceous. Receptacle convex or short-conic; scales 0, but short hairs present. Corolla tubular. Style base not swollen. Achenes ellipsoid-cylindric or obpyramidal, 5-angled, usually glabrous or hairy, rarely glandular; pappus of persistent scabrid hairs, with acute apical cells.
Erect shrub up to c. 2 m tall. Stems covered in a tomentum of reddish purple-striped eglandular hairs at least above. Petiole tomentose, c. 5-10 cm long; lamina tomentose on veins on lower surface, otherwise with short hairs and sessile glands, ovate, acute to acuminate, denticulate to serrate, 11-25 × 8-25 cm; uppermost lvs smaller. Capitula c. 10 mm diam., many to numerous; peduncles tomentose. Inner involucral bracts ovate- to oblong-lanceolate, hairy near apex, c. 7-8 mm long; outer bracts from c. 3 mm long. Florets yellow tinged purplish, obscured by long filiform reddish purple stigmas. Achenes cylindric, slightly wider toward apex, dark brown, glabrous, 1.5-2 mm long.
Perennial climbers with slender stems and often tuberous roots or rhizomes. Lvs ± succulent, alternate, entire, exstipulate. Fls usually ☿, actinomorphic, in spikes, racemes or panicles; each fl. subtended by a small bract and 2 or 4, sometimes petaloid bracteoles. Perianth segments (tepals) 5, almost free to connate and forming a tube, persistent in fr., imbricate. Petals 0. Stamens 5, inserted opposite to tepals and on or near their bases; filaments free, short; anthers dehiscing lengthwise or by apical pores or slits. Ovary superior, 1-locular, with 1 basal ovule; style usually simple or 3-branched, sometimes 3. Fr. indehiscent, surrounded by the persistent, sometimes fleshy perianth or winged bracteoles. Seed globular or nearly so; endosperm copious.
Fibrous-rooted, bushy herbs to c. 30 cm high; stems succulent and much-branched. Lvs with large scarious stipules; petiole reddish, to c. 3 cm long; lamina to c. 8 × 6 cm (larger in cultivation), broadly ovate, usually partly folded lengthways, semi-succulent, glossy above, glabrous except for the sparsely ciliate, reddish, undulate margin; base almost symmetric to somewhat oblique. Fls in small axillary clusters toward stem apices. ♂ fls: sepals 2, 1.5-c. 2.5 cm diam., almost orbicular, white, pink or rose; petals 2, c. 1.0 × 0.5 cm, narrowly elliptic-obovate, coloured similiarly. ♀ fls smaller; sepals 3; petals 2. Ovary with 3, broad, pink to red wings. Stigmas spirally twisted.
♂ and ♀ fls often showy; sepals and petals free, combined number 10. Stamens usually forming a yellow globose mass. Ovary completely inferior. Fr. nearly always a loculicidal capsule.
Monoecious herbs or subshrubs, usually with succulent, jointed stems. Lvs alternate, simple, usually oblique towards base, often strongly asymmetric. Fls actinomorphic or zygomorphic, mostly in axillary cymes. ♂ fls with 2-(5), opposite, valvate sepals; petals usually 2-5, imbricate, sometimes 0; stamens numerous; filaments free or connate; anthers opening lengthwise. ♀ fls with perianth similar to ♂; staminodes very small or 0; ovary inferior, occasionally free at apex, (1)-2-5-locular, usually angled or winged; styles 2-5, free or connate; stigmas often twisted and appearing similar to stamens; ovules very numerous on axile placentae. Fr. usually a capsule, rarely a berry. Seeds very numerous, minute, almost non-endospermic; testa reticulate; embryo straight.
Annual or perennial herbs. Lvs mostly basal, simple, entire to serrate or crenate, reduced and alternate when present on peduncles. Capitula solitary and terminal, but appearing axillary from basal rosettes. Involucral bracts in 1-2 rows, herbaceous. Receptacle flat to conic; scales 0. Outer florets ♀, ligulate, in 1 row (more ligulate rows in cvs); ligules white, tinged pink, or purple. Inner florets ☿, tubular, numerous. Achenes all similar, obovoid, compressed, with 2 narrow ribs; pappus usually 0, rarely of a ring of short bristles.
Stoloniferous rosette perennial. Basal lvs cuneately narrowed to a petiole ± = lamina, mostly spathulate, obovate or elliptic-oblong, crenate-serrate with 2-6 pairs of teeth or remote denticles, almost glabrous to moderately hairy on both surfaces, often more hairy on lower, with 1 main vein, (10)-20-60-(80) × (4)-8-20-(25) mm. Peduncle moderately to densely hairy, leafless, 3-15-(25) cm long. Capitula 15-25 mm diam. at anthesis; receptacle conic. Involucral bracts ovate- to elliptic-oblong, usually obtuse, rarely subacute, sparsely to moderately hairy. Ray florets in 1-(5) rows; ligules linear, white, often tinged pink to reddish purple on lower surface or at apex, rarely wholly pink to reddish purple, 5-8-(11) mm long. Disc florets yellow. Achenes hairy, brown with pale ribs, 1-1.3-(1.6) mm long; pappus 0.
Shrubs or subshrubs, often spiny. Lvs alternate, simple or compound, exstipulate or stipules minute. Fls ☿, nearly always 3-merous, solitary or in fascicles, racemes or panicles. Perianth of similar sepals and petals in 2-several whorls, free, 3 per whorl, yellow to orange, caducous. Stamens 6, antipetalous; anthers 2-locular, dehiscing by apically-hinged valves. Ovary superior; carpel 1; ovules few. Fr. a 1-few-seeded berry.
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Evergreen or deciduous shrubs, sometimes small subshrubs, usually glabrous or nearly so; wood yellow. Lvs on short or spur shoots simple, often with spiny margins; lvs on long shoots usually modified to form (1)-3-(5)-partite spines. Fls solitary, or in fascicles, racemes (sometimes pseudo-umbellate) or panicles, bracteate, axillary. Perianth segments 12 or 15, consisting of 6 or 9 sepals and 6 petals, imbricate, pale yellow to orange; innermost petals with nectariferous glands at base. Stamens 6, usually sensitive to touch; stigma sessile or on short style. Berry red or black, often with glaucous bloom, (1)-2-(several)-seeded.
Glabrous evergreen shrub to c. 2 m high. Shoots pale yellowish, angled. Spines 3-partite, the main axis to 5 cm long. Lvs sessile or subsessile, 5-9 × 0.7-1.4 cm on flowering branches, narrowly lanceolate, rigidly coriaceous, shining above; margins spiny serrate and revolute; base attenuate to cuneate; apex spiny. Fls to 17 in fascicles, occasionally more. Bracts 2-3 mm long, ovate, mucronate. Pedicels c. 10 mm long at anthesis, becoming dark crimson. Perianth segments to 6 mm long, yellow, those of outermost whorl 1-2 mm long. Nectaries prominent. Stamens c. 3 mm long. Ovules 4. Style short. Stigma very large. Berry 5-7 mm diam., globose or subglobose, black and pruinose; fruiting style 0.5-1 mm long.
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Annual, biennial or perennial herbs, glabrous or nearly so. Stems green, yellowish or red. Lvs alternate, flat or rugose, entire or nearly so; basal lvs long-petiolate, often large. Fls ☿, 1-few in cymes; cymes in spicate infls. Bracteoles 2. Perianth segments 5, usually green, incurved, thickening and hardening towards base at fruiting. Stamens 5. Ovary semi-inferior. Stigmas 2-3. Frs often adhering together by the enlarged perianth, the whole fruiting mass or glomerule forming a hard mass. Seed 1, horizontal, tightly enclosed in covering mainly formed by perianth.
Glabrous or almost glabrous annual, biennial, or short-lived perennial herb. Taproot stout, but not usually strongly thickened. Basal lvs usually forming rosette at first. Petiole to c. 20 cm long; lamina very variable according to habitat, usually to 20 × 15 cm, ovate or oblong-ovate, glossy, puckered or bullate; margin undulate; base generally cordate. Flowering stems 30-100 cm high, with few to many branches; cymes 1-4-flowered, dense above, more interrupted towards base of stem; lvs and leaflike bracts smaller and more linear toward top of stem, often scarcely > glomerules. Perianth segments 1.7-2.5 mm long, oblong, green with hyaline margin, incurved, scarcely accrescent. Stamens included. Fruiting ovary 2-4 mm across top, flat, orbicular. Seed deep glossy brown.
Trees or shrubs. Buds sessile, with several imbricate scales. Lvs toothed, few- to many-veined. ♂ catkins formed in autumn, opening in spring often before the lvs; fls with a bract and 2 bracteoles; fls 3 in the axil of each bract; perianth minute, 4-lobed; stamens 2, divided below the anthers. ♀ catkins shorter; fls in groups of 3 each with a bract and 2 bracteoles. Fruiting catkins cylindric to oblong or narrow-ovoid; scales 3-lobed, ± membranous, falling at fr. maturity. Fr. small; wing broad or narrow.
Tree to c. 25 m high; branchlets slender, often semi-drooping. Bark smooth at first, silvery-white and papery, usually becoming dark grey and rough at least on lower trunk. Shoots glabrous, ± glandular-resinous, prominently lenticellate and appearing warty. Petiole slender, mostly 7-25 mm long. Lamina 3-6 × 1.5-5.5 cm, deltoid, ovate or rhombic-ovate, glabrous, with 5-7 pairs of veins, glandular-resinous when young, coarsely and doubly serrate; base subcordate, truncate or broadly cuneate; apex acuminate. ♂ catkins 2-9 cm long; bract 2-3 mm long, shield-like, both bract and bracteoles ciliolate. ♀ catkins 1.5-2.5 cm long, scarcely elongating at fruiting but becoming broadly cyclindric and c. 0.7 cm wide. Stigmas rose. Scales 3.5-4.5 × 4-5 mm, puberulent; lateral lobes broader and rounder than middle lobe, widespreading and often ± downward curving. Fr. 1.5-2.5 mm long; wing much > fr.
Deciduous, monoecious trees or shrubs with scaly buds. Lvs alternate, simple; stipules usually caducous. Fls wind-pollinated, the sexes in different infls, often produced before the lvs; ♂ fls in pendulous catkins; fls 2-3 in axil of each bract; each group of fls with 2-4 bracteoles; perianth minute, 4-lobed; stamens 2 or 4. ♀ fls in erect catkins; bracts and bracteoles as in male fls; fls 2-3 in axil of each bract; perianth 0. Ovary superior, 2-celled. Styles 2, free. Ovules 1 per cell, pendulous. Fr. a compressed nutlet, usually winged, 1-3 in the axis of scales formed from the fusion of bracts and bracteoles, the whole forming a cylindric, ellipsoid or ovoid cone-like structure. Seed non-endospermic, with straight embryo.
Erect, glabrous or almost glabrous annual, 20-200 cm tall. Stems angled, branched above to form infl., and sometimes from base. Lvs petiolate, 1-pinnate, with 1-2 pairs of leaflets and a slightly larger terminal leaflet; leaflets sessile or shortly petiolulate, narrow-ovate to lanceolate, coarsely or unevenly serrate, acuminate, (1)-2-13 cm long. Upper cauline lvs becoming smaller, shortly petiolate, and often simple and not lobed or 3-lobed. Capitula 10-20 mm diam. Outer involucral bracts 4-9, foliaceous, usually ciliate at least at base, sometimes glabrous, linear to narrowly oblong-obovate, (10)-15-30 mm long; inner bracts many, membranous, triangular to subulate, 6-10 mm long, with dark lined centre and pale margins. Receptacular scales similar to inner bracts but narrower. Florets usually all ☿, tubular, yellow-orange, rarely a few orange ray florets present. Achenes flattened, ovate-cuneate with 1 slender rib on each face, dark brown, ciliate, and otherwise glabrous to sparsely hairy, 6-10 mm long; awns 2, 2.5-4.5 mm long.