Download Click to get the current page url to share Cite this record

Cunningham, G.H. 1944: The Gasteromycetes of Australia and New Zealand. John McIndoe.

Reference record
Names_Fungi record source
Is NZ relevant
This record has descriptions
Show more

Click to collapse Details Info

Cunningham, G.H. 1944: The Gasteromycetes of Australia and New Zealand. John McIndoe.
Book

Click to collapse Descriptions Info

Peridium cyathiform, to 12 mm. tall, and 10 mm. diameter at the apex, tapering slightly to the sessile truncate base, seated on a basal subiculum, exterior bright cinnamon brown, becoming dingy with age, in young specimens closely covered with appressed silky tomentum, becoming almost smooth with age, interior pallid cinnamon, smooth, shining; margin erect, or slightly expanded, even, thick, entire, wall of a single layer of woven hyphe. Peridiola pallid brown or dingy white, lenticular, orbicular, smooth, 1.25-2 mm. diameter; wall of three layers, an outer of woven ferruginous hyphae, a middle layer of deeply coloured branched hyphae, and an inner thin layer of gelatinized hyaline hyphae. Spores elliptical, rounded at both ends, 7-10 x 4-5.5 µ, epispore hyaline, smooth, 1 µ thick.
DiSTRIBUTION : World-wide. New South. Wales: Orange (1). Victoria: Craigie; Myperfeld National Reserve; Kollista (4). South Australia: The Hermitage; Mt. Lofty; Baker's Gully, near Clarendon; Kinchina (1). Western Australia: Pemberton (1). Tasmania: Hobart (3). New Zealand: Auckland-Puhi Puhi ; Te Aroha ; Mt. Tongariro. Taranaki-Mt. Egmont. Wellington-Levin Sandhills ; Lake Papaetonga ; York Bay; Pahiatua ; Komako ; Mt. Ruapehu, track to Ohakune Hut; Manawatu Gorge; Paekakarikei Forest Reserve; Mangahao, Tararua Ranges; Tiritea ; Teranikau Valley. Westland-Maruia Track. Canterbury-Cass; Otira Gorge. Otago-Dunedin Town Belt (2).
The species is the most abundant of those present in the order, and may be collected at almost any season of the year on dead twigs, fern fronds and the like lying on the forest floor. Our collections agree exactly with European and North American specimens. There is also present in this region a small form which was named C.simile Mass. Through the courtesy of Miss Wakefield I have been able to examine part of the type, collected at Dannevirke by Colenso and now in Kew herbarium, No. 414. It agrees with other small specimens, differing from C.vulgare only in the smaller size of the peridia and peridiola. So many intermediate forms occur that separation is not practicable. The spores are as given above, not 4 x 3 µ as described by Massee.
Since the brothers Tulasne published their classical monograph most workers have accepted their specific names for members of the family, as they were the first to work over the old European forms critically and bring order out of the chaotic naming of earlier workers. Certain American workers have, however, on the plea of priority, recorded the species under the names of Crucibulum crucibuliforme and C.levis. The former cannot be used since the specific name was employed by Scopoli prior to the starting point of modern nomenclature. No evidence exists that the plant named Cyathus levis by De Candolle is the same as C.vulgare. Use of the combination Crucibulum crucibulum, which has also been proposed on the score that the specific name was employed by Persoon, is opposed to standard usage and the recommendations of the International Rules of Nomenclature.
The subspecies is a form of G.minus, differing only in its shorter pedicel, hygroscopic exoperidium, the rays of which when dry fold under or over the endoperidium, and somewhat finer markings of the spores. The plant is merely a sub-hygroscopic form of G.minus, agreeing closely in other features. Two collections possess spores 3.5-4um diameter, whereas in the others they are the same diameter as G.minus, namely 4.5-6.5um. It has been found impracticable to separate the small spored form, since plants are identical in other respects. The same variation occurs in G.minus.
DISTRIBUTION: North America; South Africa; Australia. New South Wales: Coolamon, det. by Lloyd as Geaster arenarius (1). South Australia: Wirrealpa; Monarto South; Ooldea ; National Park; Beaumont (1). Victoria: Near Myperfeld (4).
TYPE LOCALITY: Florida, North America.
Plants superficial, at first ovate and acuminate, becoming expanded when to 7 cm. across. Exoperidium saccate, split to about the middle into 6-8 broad, equal, acuminate rays, which are expanded or with tips involute; fleshy layer bay brown or chestnut brown, adnate, continuous when fresh, becoming rimose; exterior free from debris, ochraceous, glabrous; base plane, convex or occasionally umbilicate, marked with a prominent umbilical scar. Endoperidium sessile, to 2 cm. diameter, ochraceous or pallid tan, glabrous, smooth; peristome fibrillose, mammose, seated on a broad, silky, slightly depressed concolorous zone, which is occasionally outlined by a slightly raised margin. Gleba ferruginous; pseudo-columella inevident. Spores globose, 7.5-9um diameter, epispore tinted, 1um thick, covered with long, flat-topped spines closely packed together and 1.5-2um in length. The species resembles G.triplex in growth habit, peristome characters and smooth exterior of the exoperidium. It differs in the ochraceous endoperidium and much larger spores, the latter being so distinctive as to make identification easy.
DISTRIBUTION : Australia; Tasmania. New South Wales: Bumberry, det. by Llovd as G.saccatus; Manildra; Myall Lakes; Kendall (1). Victoria: Smedley Park, Melbourne; Wandin (9) ; Eltham; Tyabb (4). South Australia: Murray Bridge; National Park, det. by Lloyd as G.simulans; Adelaide; Kinchina; Myponga; Kangaroo Island; Encounter Bay (1).
TYPE LOCALITY : King George's Sound, Tasmania
Plants small, globose, at first submerged, becoming superficial and expanded when to 4 cm. across. Exoperidium split to about the middle into 7-12 acute, equal rays which are expanded when wet, involute when dry, folding over or under the endoperidium; fleshy layer umber, adnate, continuous or rimose; exterior covered with debris held by the closely adnate mycelial layer, becoming partly smooth; base umbilicate. Endoperidium shortly pedicelled, depressed globose or subglobose, to 15 mm. diameter, dingy white, tan or bay brown, finely and closely asperate. Peristome conical, acute, usually seated on a depressed zone, frequently darker in colour. Spores globose, 6-8 um diameter, epispore chestnut brown, 1um thick, coarsely and moderately verrucose, appearing areolate. The exoperidium varies in different individuals from a strongly hygroscopic to a flaccid, almost revolute condition. Lloyd (Geastreae, p. 18, 1902) placed the plant in his non-rigid (non-hygroscopic) section; whereas Coker (1924) held it to belong to the hygroscopic section, an opinion supported both by his and Lloyd's illustrations. Species placed under the hygroscopic section of the group possessing sulcate peristomes resemble one another so closely that separation is frequently a difficult matter. It is possible to recognize four species from this region by the following characters :— 1- Endoperidium typically pedicelled. 2 1'- Endoperidium typically sessile G.drummondii 2- Spores 6-8 um in diameter G.campestre 2'- Spores 4-5um in diameter. 3 3-Endoperidium asperate G.clelandii 3'-Endoperidium smooth G.smithii The presence of a pedicel is not always a satisfactory means of separation, as in occasional plants this structure may be much reduced, or even absent. The large spores are useful in separating G.campestre from the others; but even this feature may fail as, according to Smith (1935, p. 275), in South Africa intermediate forms occur. These led him to place G.clelandii under C.campestre; but as intermediates do not occur in this region I have retained both as valid species. Lloyd (Lyc.Aus., p. 19, 1905) recorded G.berkeleyi from Australia, and in a former paper I (1926, d, p. 78) accepted his identifka tion and listed it among the species of the region. The record should be deleted as I have since ascertained that it was based on specimens of G.drummondii.
DISTRIBUTION : Europe; North America; South Africa; Australia. South. Australia: Kinchina, six collections; M annum; Hallett's Cove (1)
TYPE LOCALITY: North America.
Plants globose, submerged, becoming superficial and expanded when to 5 cm. across. Exoperidium split to about the middle into 8-10 acute equal rays, which are expanded when wet, strongly involute when dry, folding over or under the endoperidium; fleshy layer umber, adnate, continuous, exterior covered with debris held by the adnate mycelial layer; base umbilicate. Endoperidium shortly pedicellate, depressed globose, to 15 mm. diameter, umber, coarsely and closely asperate. Peristome conical, acute, seated on a depressed zone, concolorous or darker. Gleba ferruginous or umber; pseudo-columella not seen. Spores globose or subglobose, 4-5.5um diameter, epispore pallid brown, 0.75um thick, closely and coarsely verrucose.The species so closely resembles the preceding (G. campestre) that separation is possible only on the smaller, differently warted spores.
DISTRIBUTION : India; South Africa; Australia. Victoria: Craigie, det. by Lloyd as G.smithii; Myperfeld National Reserve (4). South Australia: Kinchina (1). Western Australia: Kalgoorlie, Mrs. A. F. Cleland, type collection (1).
Plants small, globose, at first submerged, becoming superficial and expanded when to 3 cm. across. Exoperidium split to about the middle into 8-10 acute equal rays, which are expanded when wet, strongly involute when dry, folding over or under the endoperidium; fleshy layer umber, frequently farinose, adnate, continuous; exterior covered with debris held by the adnate mycelial layer, becoming partly smooth; base umbilicate. Endoperidium sessile or occasionally shortly pedicelled, globose or depressed globose, to 10 mm. diameter, dingy white or less frequently brown, finely asperate, often becoming smooth with age. Peristome conical, usually acute, sometimes flattened, seated on a depressed zone, which may be wanting, frequently darker in colour. Gleba ferruginous; pseudo-columella inevident. Spores globose or subglobose, 4-6um diameter, epispore ferruginous, 0.75um thick, finely and moderately verruculose, sometimes briefly pedicelled. Although typically sessile, the endoperidium occasionally may be shortly pedicelled. Such plants approach G.clelandii, from which they may be separated by the slightly larger spores. The species also closely resembles G.umbilicatum, in the sense that this species is recognized by European, not American, mycologists; but differs in the larger spores, those of G.umbilicatum being 3.5-4um.
DISTRIBUTION: Africa; Australia; Tasmania. Victoria: Dimboola, three collections, one det. by Lloyd as G.striatulus, a second as G.drummondii, and the third was in a package labelled G.argenteus Cke. ( 9 ) ; Maryborough; Unknown Locality ( 4 ) ; Mildura (2). South Australia: Encounter Bay, (Jet. by Lloyd as G.drummondii; Kinchina; Monarto South; Narrabri; Wagin (1). Western Australia: Tammin (1). Tasmania: Hobart (3)
TYPE LOCALITY : Swan River, Western Australia.
Plants at first globose and submerged, becoming superficial and expanded when 2-3.5 cm. across. Exoperidium split to about the middle into 8-14 equal, acute, expanded rays; fleshy layer thin, more or less completely flaking away and leaving the pallid tan-coloured fibrous layer exposed; exterior covered with debris held by the adnate mycelial layer, which flakes away more or less completely; base concave. Endoperidium pedicellate, subglobose, 1-2 cm. diameter, brown, smooth, shining, apophysis frequently present, base smooth, pedicel short. Peristome sulcate, prominent, conical, elliptical, to 8 mm. long, concolorous or darker, sometimes two stomata present in the same plant. Gleba chocolate brown or almost black; pseudo-columella wanting. Spores globose or subglobose, 6-8 um diameter, epispore dark brown, 1 um thick, coarsely and somewhat densely verrucose, appearing areolate, sometimes shortly pedicelled.A distinct species, separated from the preceding by the elliptical peristome, dark colour of the gleba, and large warted spores which closely resemble those of G.limbatum.
DISTRIBUTION : Australia. South Australia: Pearson Island, Great Australian Bight, J. B. Cleland, type collection (1).
Plants globose and submerged, becoming expanded when! to 3 cm. across. Exoperidium saccate, split to about the middle into 6-8 unequal, flaccid, bluntly pointed rays which are expanded or with the tips revolute; fleshy layer brown, continuous, adnate; exterior wholly covered with debris held by the adnate mycelial layer, which may partially flake away upon weathering; base convex, plane or concave. Endoperidium sessile, 5-10 mm. diameter, depressed globose, drying white or umber brown, glabrous, smooth. Stoma either an inconspicuous aperture with fibrous or lacerate margin, or defined by a slightly depressed concolorous or lighter zone, sometimes approaching the fibrillose condition. Gleba umber; pseudo-columella inevident. Spores globose, 3.5-4.5um diameter, epispore fuscous, 0.75 um thick, closely and finely verruculose. The species is differentiated by its small size, indefinite stoma, persistent mycelial layer and sessile endoperidium. Occasional plants possess an obscurely fibrillose peristome, when they approach G.saccatum, being then separated by the persistent mycelial layer. Two forms are present in the collections listed, separable only by the spores, those of one being 3.3-3.7um diameter, of the other 3.5-4.5um
DISTRIBUTION: Britain; Europe; North America; South Africa; Australia. j New South Wales: Manildra, det. by Lloyd as G.saccatus (1). Victoria: Staughton Vale, Brisbane Range (1); Melbourne, F. M. Reader, type of G.readeri in herb.Kew. South Australia: Mt. Dutton Bay; Fullarton, Adelaide; Kinchina; Gandergrove (1).
TYPE LOCALITY: Germany.
Plants at first globose and submerged, becoming superficial and expanded when 2-6 cm. across. Exoperidium split to about the middle into 7-12 subequal, narrow, acute rays which are expanded when wet, strongly involute when dry, then folding completely over (rarely under) the endoperidium; fleshy layer adnate, smooth, umber, rimose when old; exterior at first covered with debris held by the closely adnate mycelial layer, soon flaking away and leaving exposed the glabrous, ochraceous or brown fibrous layer; base strongly umbilicate. Endoperidium to 15 mm. diameter, sessile, depressed globose, minutely furfuraceous, glabrous when old. Stoma naked, indefinite, conical or more frequently plane, irregularly torn and apically fibrillose in old specimens. Gleba umber; pseudo-columella cylindrical, small. Spores globose or subglobose, 5.5-7.5um diameter, epispore dark brown, 1um thick, closely and coarsely warted. The characters of the species are the hygroscopic exoperidium, sessile endoperidium, naked indefinite stoma and large spores. The stoma does not at any time approach the fibrillose condition, so that even in old specimens its indefinite nature may be ascertained readily. The spores are somewhat variable in size, in some collections being slightly smaller than those of typical plants.
DISTRIBUTION : Europe; North America; South Africa; Australia; New Zealand. New South Wales: Bibbenluke; Forbes (1). Victoria: Dimboola: Melbourne ( 9 ) ; Mildura; Mathalia (4). South Australia: Port Elliot; Adelaide; Ooldea; Aldinga Bay; Kinchina.; Naidea, River Murray (1). Central Australia: Echo Hill, 200 miles north-west of Oodnadatta (1). New Zealand: Wellington—Masterton. Canterbury—Ashburton. Otago •—Dunedin; Karitane (2).
TYPE LOCALITY: Europe
Plants at first globose and submerged, becoming superficial and expanded when to 5 cm. across. Exoperidium split to about the middle into 7-9 subequal, acute, expanded rays; fleshy layer umber brown, becoming rimose; exterior covered -with debris held by the adnate mycelial layer; base concave. Endoperidium subpedicellate or sessile, to 2 cm. diameter, depressed globose, dark umber, distinctly pitted and roughened but not warted or tomentose. Peristome sulcate, conical, acute, darker in colour. Gleba umber; pseudo-columella not seen. Spores globose, 3-3.5 um diameter, epispore umber, 0.um thick, delicately and closely verruculose.The species is characterized by the finely verruculose minute spores and pitted endoperidium. Though the latter is typically sessile, in the Mummulgum specimens it is shortly pedicelled. The description has been drawn from Australian specimens identified by Lloyd as G.hariotii, and which agree closely with the description given of this plant by Coker & Couch (1928).
DISTRIBUTION : Southern Europe; South America; Ceylon; East Indies; West Indies; Australia. New South Wales: Mummulgum, det. by Lloyd as Geaster hariotii (1). Victoria: Unknown Locality, Lloyd herbarium (Coker & Couch, 1928, p. 135).
TYPE LOCALITY: South America.
Plants globose and submerged, becoming superficial and expanded when to 6 cm. across. Exoperidium split to below the middle into 7-12 equal acute rays, which are expanded when wet, strongly involute when dry, folding over the endoperidium; fleshy layer thick, adnate, umber, rimose in mature plants; exterior at first covered with an evanescent mycelial layer, becoming smooth and polished, bay or umber brown; base convex or plane. Endoperidium sessile, depressed globose or globose, 1-2.5 cm. diameter, greyish or bay brown, finely pubescent, and somewhat areolate. Stoma indefinite, without a depressed zone. Gleba umber; pseudo-columella absent. Spores globose, 7.5-10.5um diameter, epispore chestnut brown, or fuscous, 1um thick, finely and densely warted, appearing areolate. Of those placed in the hygroscopic section, the species may be recognized by the firm cartilaginous rays of the exoperidium, roughened endoperidium and, particularly, the large coarsely warted spores
DISTRIBUTION: Europe; North America; India; Australia. Victoria: Dandenong Ranges (4).
TYPE LOCALITY : Europe.
Plants at first globose and submerged, becoming superficial and expanded when 3-6 cm. across. Exoperidium split to the middle into 7-10 unequal acute rays, which are expanded or sometimes partially involute; fleshy layer bay brown or ferruginous, continuous or rimose, frequently farinose; exterior covered with debris held by the persistent adnate mycelial layer, in old specimens frequently partially flaking away; base concave or plane. Endoperidium pedicellate, depressed globose, obovate or subpyriform, glabrous when old, farinose when young, grey or weathered to umber, to 1.5 cm. diameter. Peristome depressed, acute, fibrillose, surrounded by a pallid or concolorous fibrillose or silky zone. Gleba chocolate coloured; pseudo-columella almost obsolete. Spores globose, 4.5-5.5um diameter, epispore fuscous, 1um thick, moderately though densely verrucose. The characters of the species are the definite fibrillose peristome, large, dark coloured, coarsely warted spores and evident pedicel. Plants may possess a flattened or conical peristome, and the latter is sometimes pleated or in extreme forms almost sulcate. Occasional specimens have the endoperidium covered with a white farinose coating. The form from this region is the same as that referred to G.limbatum by European mycologists, as I have ascertained by comparison with British and European material. Specimens sent from California, collected near Berkeley by Miss E. Morse, also agree closely. It differs from that described under this name by Coker & Couch (1928, p. 107) by the persistent mycelial layer, and larger, differently marked spores. The epigsean habit and other characters of their plant suggest the authors were dealing with a sub-pedicellate form of G.triplex. In his various papers Lloyd confused G.limbatum with G.rufescens, and held that separation was possible only by the absence of a well defined pedicel. They are quite different plants, however, for G.rufescens has a naked stoma. Lloyd's record of the presence of G.rufescens in Australia (Lyc.Aus., p. 22, 1905) was based on a plant at Kew labelled G.readeri, which is a synonym of G. fimbriatum, as I ascertained by examination of the type.
DISTRIBUTION: Britain; Europe; North America; Africa; Australia; New Zealand. New South Wales: Murwillumbah (1). Victoria: Maryborough; Carlton; Melbourne; Healesville (4). South Australia: Murray Bridge; Mt. Lofty; Glen Osmond; Adelaide; Fullarton; Beaumont; Encounter Bay; Kinchina; Hallett's Cove; Pinnaroo; Enfield (1). Central Australia: Seventy miles west of Erldunda (1). New Zealand : Wellington—Kelburn ; Wadestown ; Levin ; Palmerston North. Canterbury—Ashburton. Otago—Roslyn (2).
TYPE LOCALITY: Europe.
Plants at first globose, small, submerged, becoming erumpent and expanded when to 3 cm. across. Exoperidium split to about the middle into 4-8 unequal acuminate rays which, commonly expanded, sometimes become fornicate through fleshy and fibrous layers splitting from the mycelial layer, save at the apices of the rays, and inverting over the latter which remains attached to the substratum; fleshy layer brown, rimose, frequently flaking away in patches. Endoperidium pedicellate, 3-12 mm. diameter, obovate, elliptical or depressed globose, variable in size and shape, pallid white, tan or bay brown, sometimes umber, glabrous, farinose or coated with closely adnate glistening particles; pedicel to 3 mm. long, frequently with an apical apophysis. Peristome variable, typically conical and fibrillose-fimbriate, frequently silkyfibrillose, sometimes almost indefinite and plane, seated on a definite silky area outlined by a depressed groove, or indefinite when the groove is scarcely apparent or absent. Gleba ferruginous; pseudo-columella inevident. Spores globose, 4.5-6.5um diameter, epispore fuscous or umber, 1um thick, closely though somewhat irregularly verrucose. This is the most variable species present in the region. Specimens range in size from minute plants 5 mm. across when fully expanded, to forms which may exceed 4 cm. The endoperidium may be expanded ("G .minimus"), fornicate ("G.coronatus"), hygroscopic ("G.arenarius"), or saccate, when plants resemble small forms of G.triplex. It may be pedicelled or almost sessile; exteriorly smooth, covered with minute glistening particles, or with a thick white incrustation ("G.calceus"). The peristome may be plane, conical, or scantily developed; nbrillose-silky, distinctly fimbriate-lacerate, or almost indefinite; seated on a flattened silky zone outlined by a depressed groove, or the zone may be inevident and the groove absent. The spores also vary, both in size and nature of the verrucse. Two types may be recognized, one with spores averaging 5-6.5um the other 3.5-4um. Names have been given to the various forms, but it is not practicable to maintain any as a distinct species, owing to the difficulty of delimitation. An exception is G.arenarium, which may be separated by the hygroscopic nature of the exoperidium. Fornicate and revolute forms have usually been considered as distinct species, the former as G.coronatum, the latter G.minimum. Coker (1924, p. 206) showed that the fornicate condition was but a stage of the other, since both fqn^s were found in the same collection.
DISTRIBUTION: Europe; North and South America; India; Japan; South Africa; Australia; New Zealand. New South Wales: Baan Baa (1). Victoria: Dimboola ( 9 ) ; Frankston; Myperfeld National Reserve, two collections (4). South Australia : Berri; Beaumont, Adelaide ; Monarto South ; Fullarton, Adelaide; Port Lincoln; Glen Osmond; Marble Range, West Coast; Kinchina; Pearson Island; Mt. Wedge, Eyres Peninsula; Boggabri: Narrabri; Bangham; Mt. Liebig; Encounter Bay; Gooleva; Flinders Range (1). Western Australia: Tammin (1). New Zealand: Wellington—Levin; Palmerston North. Marlborougr Wairau River. Canterbury—Ashburton. Otago—Dunedin (2).
TYPE LOCALITY: Europe
Plants small, often csespitose, subglobose or obovate, umbonate, superficial, attached by a central basal rhizomorph, becoming tardily expanded when to 2 cm. across. -Exoperidium saccate, split to about the middle into 5-7 broad, bluntly pointed expanded rays; fleshy layer flesh coloured, drying bay brown, continuous, adnate; exterior free from debris, brown, strigose-tomentose; base convex, with a prominent umbilical scar. Endoperidium sessile, 5 mm. diameter, subglobose, pallid tan, finely iomentose or glabrous, lower third enclosed by the saccate base of the exoperidium; peristome conical, silky, fibrillose, concolorous or darker, frequently seated on a depressed zone. Gleba umber; pseudo-columella inevident. Spores globose, 3.5-4um diameter, epispore fuscous, 0.5um thick, finely and moderately verruculose. I have not seen Australian specimens, the description being drawn from North American material kindly forwarded by Dr. W. C. Coker. He examined the type of Geaster lignicola at Kew and found it to be the same as G.mirabile. The species is separated from G.velutinum—which it resembles in the tomentose exterior of the exoperidium—by the small size, usually cespitose habit and slightly smaller, more finely verruculose spores. Fructifications often grow in clusters upon the surface of a subiculum covering decaying vegetable debris on the ground.
DISTRIBUTION : North and South America; West Indies; Africa; Ceylon; Japan; Australia. Queensland: Rockingham Bay, Thozet, type of "Geaster lignicola," in herb. Kew.
TYPE LOCALITY: Guiana.
Plants at first globose and submerged, becoming superficial and expanded when to 3.5 cm. across. Exoperidium split to about the middle into 5-12 subequal, expanded, acute rays; fleshy layer brown, unequally flaking away in irregular patches, leaving the ochraceous fibrous layer exposed; exterior covered with debris held by the adnate mycelial layer, which is persistent but tends to flake away; base concave. Endoperidium pedicellate, subglobose or depressed globose, 1-2 cm. diameter, brown or lead coloured, often farinose, base tapering into the pedicel, striate or not, apophysis present or absent; pedicel slender, 3-6 mm. long. Peristome sulcate, prominent, narrowly conical and concolorous. Gleba ferruginous; pseudo-columella inevident; capillitium threads tinted, fusiform, continuous, unbranched. Spores globose, 5-6 um diameter, epispore dark umber brown, 0.5 um thick, closely covered with irregular, prominent, flat-topped warts. Four closely related species fall within a section characterized by the sulcate peristome, non-hygroscopic exoperidium and pedicellate, smooth endoperidium. Although specific characters are not always constant, typical forms may be identified readily by the features given in the key.
DISTRIBUTION: Europe; North America; South Africa; Australia; New Zealand. Queensland: Lower Archer River, Gulf of Carpentaria (4). New South Wales: Milson Island, Hawkesbury River (1). Victoria: Healesville; Marysville (4). South Australia: Black Hill, Adelaide, three collections; Port Elliot; Glen Osmond; Port Lincoln, det by Lloyd as G.schmidelii; National Park; Mt. Serle (1). New Zealand: Wellington—Otaki Forks. Otago—Dunedin (2).
TYPE LOCALITY : Europe
Separated from G.pectinatum by the plicate base of the endoperidium, though identical in other respects
DISTRIBUTION : India; Ceylon; South Africa; Australia; Tasmania; New Zealand. Victoria: Grantville (9); Unknown Locality; Eltham (4). South Australia: Fullarton; Adelaide; Encounter Bay (1). New Zealand: Wellington—Weraroa, det. by Lloyd as Geaster plicatus; Lake Papaetonga; Palmerston North. Otago—Puerua; Dunedin (2).
TYPE LOCALITY: Madras, India.
Plants superficial, ovate, pointed or umbonate, attached by a basal rhizomorph, becoming expanded when 2-3 cm. across. Exoperidium saccate, split to about the middle into 5-9 pliable, thin, expanded equal acute rays; fleshy layer brown, adnate, frequently rimose; exterior smooth, free from debris; base concave or plane, sometimes convex, with a prominent umbilical scar. Endoperidium sessile, to 15 mm. diameter, globose, glabrous, brown, partly enclosed by the saccate base of the exoperidium; peristome fibrillose, almost plane, concolorous or pallid, even, seated on a small depressed silky zone. Gleba umber; pseudo-columella indistinct. Spores globose, 3-3.5um diameter, epispore umber, 0.5um thick, finely and moderately verruculose. Opinions differ as to the characters of the species Fries named Geaster saccatus. I have followed modern European workers in considering it to be a plant with a fibrillose peristome, exoperidium externally free from debris, umbilical scar, and spores 3-3.5um diameter. Some workers have confused it with G.fimbriatum, others with G. triplex. Lloyd appeared to have had no clear conception as to the species; for some Australian collections named by him as G.saccatum proved to be G.triplex, G.australe and G.minus; one was correctly named, and a fifth, named by him as Geaster arenarius, I have placed under G.saccatum. His uncertainty apparently also confused Smith (1935) who found difficulty in separating the species from G.triplex, largely because he attempted delimitation on, the variable—and therefore unsuitable—feature of plant size.
Plants globose, submerged, becoming superficial and expanded when to 4 cm. across. Exoperidium split to about the middle into 7-8 unequal acute rays, which are expanded when wet, involute when dry, folding over or usually under the endoperidium, sometimes drying partially expanded; fleshy layer thick, adnate, umber, rimose or continuous; exterior at first covered with debris held by the adnate mycelial layer, usually flaking away leaving exposed the ochraceous or bay brown fibrous layer; base strongly umbilicate. Endoperidium sessile, depressed globose, to 15 mm. diameter, glabrous, ochraceous. Stoma a minute, indefinite plane aperture, lacerate or nbrillose when old, slightly wrinkled or folded. Gleba ferruginous; pseudo-cohimella inevident. Spores globose, 4-5.5um diameter, epispore fuscous, 1 um thick, finely and moderately verrucose, sometimes briefly pedicelled. The species may be separated from G.floriforme by its subhygroscopic habit and manner in which the basal portion of the exoperidium becomes arched and carries the endoperidium upwards to appear as if seated on a broad short pedicel. The thick rays of the exoperidium and small spores with their distinctive markings are also diagnostic features. The species appears to be intermediate between G.rufescens and G.floriforme, possessing the spores and stoma of the former, and hygroscopic habit of the latter. It was erected by Lloyd upon a specimen in Kew herbarium collected in Western Australia by Drummond and labeled by Berkeley G.hygrometricum. Ahmad (1941, b) recorded the species from India.
DISTRIBUTION : Australia; India. New South Wales: Manildra, det by;Lloyd as. Geaster simulans (1). Victoria-. Boning County; Mallee (4)- South Australia: Kinchina; Pemberton (1).
TYPE LOCALITY: Swan River, Western Australia
Plants seated upon a mycelial subiculum, small, obovate, umbonate, superficial, attached by a central basal rhizomorph, becoming tardily expanded when to 3 cm. across. Exoperidium saccate, split to about the middle into 6-7 bluntly pointed expanded rays; fleshy layer bay brown, continuous, adnate; exterior free from debris, bay brown, glabrous; base convex, with an umbilical scar. Endoperidium 7-10 mm. diameter, sessile, subglobose, umber brown, glabrous, lower half enclosed by the saccate base of the exoperidium; peristome flattened, obscurely fibrillose, concolorous, seated on a depressed zone. Gleba umber; pseudo-columella inevident. Spores globose, 3.5-4.5um diameter, epispore chestnut brown, 0.75um thick, delicately verruculose. Fructifications grow crowded upon a white subiculum covering the surface of decaying vegetable debris on the forest floor. The species may be identified by the small almost smooth spores. The collection from New South Wales is referred to G.subiculosum partly because of these features, partly as it agrees with the description drawn by Coker & Couch (1928, p. 119) from the type at Kew. They referred here a Jamaican collection which differed in that the spores were smooth and 2-3um diameter.
DISTRIBUTION : Australia; ? Jamaica. New South Wales: Forbes (1).
TYPE LOCALITY: Trinity Bay, Queensland
Plants superficial, ovate, pointed, becoming expanded when 2-12 cm. across. Exoperidium split to about the middle into 5-8 equal, narrowly acuminate expanded rays; fleshy layer umber, rimose, frequently partially flaking away, sometimes with a small portion persisting as a collar around the base of the endoperidium; exterior free from debris, bay brown or tan coloured, glabrous, usually marked with numerous longitudinal striae; base plane, with a prominent umbilical scar. Endoperidium sessile, 0.5-2.5 cm. diameter, depressed globose, or almost pulvinate, bay brown or umber, glabrous, finely pitted or smooth, membranous. Peristome fibrillose, mammose, seated on a broad, depressed, silky, pallid zone which is usually outlined by an upraised margin. Gleba ferruginous or umber; pseudo-columella clavate or indistinct. Spores globose, 4-5.5um diameter, epispore almost black, 0.75um thick, closely covered with lighter coloured or hyaline, irregularly shaped prominent verrucose. The species is characterized by the acuminate apices of the expanded rays, glabrous usually striate exterior of the exoperidium with the base marked by a prominent umbilical scar, and spores 4-5 um diameter. Typical specimens have the fibrillose peristome enclosed by a large depressed silky zone. In small plants the peristome characters resemble those of G.saccatum, when separation may be affected by the dark, more coarsely verrucose and larger spores.
DISTRIBUTION: Britain; Europe; North and South America; India; Australia; Tasmania; New Zealand. New South Wales: Milson Island, Hawkesbury River, det. by Lloyd as G.triplex ; Terrigal; Neutral Bay, Sydney; Dorrigo ; Baradine ; National Park; Kosciusko (1). Victoria: Smedley Park, Melbourne ( 9 ) ; Cockatoo; Botanic Gardens, Melbourne; Creswick; Myperfeld National Reserve (4). South Australia: Overland Corner (1). Western Australia: Claremont (8). Tasmania: Hobart (3). New Zealand: Wellington—Weraroa, det. by Lloyd as Geaster englerianus; Same Locality, two collections; Whakatikei Forest Reserve; Tararua Ranges ; Manawatu Gorge. Otago—Dunedin ; Catlins ; Puerua ; Whisky Gully, Tapanui. (2).
TYPE LOCALITY: Java; East Indies.
Plants ovate, bluntly pointed, superficial, attached to the substratum by a central basal rhizomorph, becoming expanded when 3-6 mm. across. Exoperidium saccate, split to about the middle into 5-8 expanded, broad, thick, subequal rays which when dry frequently split into fibrous and mycelial layers; fleshy layer flesh-coloured, umber and rimose when dry; exterior free from debris, covered with brown felted tomentum; base convex, marked with a prominent umbilical scar. Endoperidium sessile, globose or depressed globose, to 2 cm. diameter, brown or pallid tan, minutely furfuraceous or tomentose, lower portion enclosed by the saccate base of the exoperidium. Peristome small, broadly conical, fibrillose, usually seated on a depressed silky zone, concolorous or pallid. Gleba umber; pseudo-columella cylindrical; capillitium threads occasionally branched near their apices. Spores globose, 4-5um diameter, epispore fuscous, 0.75um thick, moderately verrucose. Though abundant in New Zealand the species would appear to be rare in Australia. It belongs to a natural section containing plants which are epigsean in all stages of development, separation from others being made upon the felted tomentum which covers the exterior of the exoperidium.
DISTRIBUTION : North and South America; Africa; Australia ; New Zealand. New South Wales: Kangaroo Valley (1). Victoria: Underbool (4). South Australia: Kinchina (1). Cook Islands: Samoa (2). New Zealand: Taranaki—Ornata. Wellington—Weraroa, det. by Lloyd as G.javanicus; Same Locality, three collections; Botanical Gardens, Wellington (2).
TYPE LOCALITY : North America.

Click to collapse Identification keys Info

Agarics: Key F (fruitbody secotioid; exc. Gastroboletus spp., Tympanella galanthina, Macowanites, Gymnomyces)

1
Spores smooth
2
Spores verrucose or verruculose
1
Spores angular, spore print pink
Gleba ochraceous or ferrugineous
3
2
Gleba chocolate or sepia brown
Peridium blue or green
3
Perdium scarlet
Peridium white, when dry ochraceous

Click to collapse Cited scientific names Info

Click to collapse Metadata Info

1cb0e239-36b9-11d5-9548-00d0592d548c
reference
Names_Fungi
29 June 2011
Click to go back to the top of the page
Top