Download Click to get the current page url to share Cite this record

Anon The New Zealand Collections of Fungi and Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. http://NZFUNGI.LandcareResearch.co.nz/

Reference record
Names_Fungi record source
Is NZ relevant
This record has descriptions
Show more

Click to collapse Details Info

Anon The New Zealand Collections of Fungi and Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. http://NZFUNGI.LandcareResearch.co.nz/
Electronic source

Click to collapse Taxonomic concepts Info

Click to collapse Cited vernacular names Info

Click to collapse Descriptions Info

PDD 99209 (https://scd.landcareresearch.co.nz/Specimen/PDD_99209) has been sequenced. The ITS sequence supports Irma Gamundi's opinion that Ameghiniella is a synonym of Ionomidotis. There is no sequence data available for an Australian specimen identified as Ionomidotis australis. The three A. australis specimens in GenBank represent two different species (one from Chile and Argentina, another from Chile) and the New Zealand specimen PDD 99209 is genetically similar to these. This perhaps reflects the A. australis ssp. australis versus A. australis ssp. valdiviana propopsed by Gamundi, Mycological Research 95: 1131-1136, 1991.
Resolving the taxonomy of these fungi needs a sequence from Australian material - there may be one or more A. australis-like species in Australasia.

CBS 197.64 is a culture of Atropellis piniphila, deposited by J.C. Hopkins, isolate 61. Hopkins (Canadian Journal of Botany 39: 1521-1529, 1961) obtained isolates he identified as A. piniphila from Pinus contorta from both germinating ascospores and from diseased wood. There is no published record of the source of isolate 61, apart from that it was from one of Hopkins isolates from Alberta.

A genome from CBS 197.64 was deposited in JGI by Richard Hamelin, University of British Columbia. Sequences for all 15 genes used by Johnston et al. 2019 (IMA Fungus 10(1): 1-22, 2019) were extracted from this genome, incorporated into a concatenated alignment including the isolates reported by Johnston et al. (2019), and a phylogeny generated using the methods of Johnston et al. (2019).

This phylogeny clearly places CBS 197.64 in Hamatocanthoscyphaceae.

The culture was presumably correctly identified, as it was deposited by J.C. Hopkins who published several papers on this fungus in the early 1960's. The type species of Atropellis is A. pinicola. Ecologically and macroscopically A. pinicola and A. piniphila are very similar. They differ in ascospore size, filiform (32-63 x 1.5-3 um) in A. pinicola, oblong-elliptic (16-28 x 4-7 um) in A. piniphila. No DNA sequence data is available for A. pinicola, to provide phylogenetic confirmation of the generic relationship.

Atropellis is at present placed in Godroniaceae (Index Fungorum 2020), but without genetic support (Jaklitsch et al. 2016, Syllabus of Plant Families). As was shown by Partel et al. (Fungal Diversity 82: 183-219, 2017) in their study of encoelioid fungi, taxonomic concepts of Leotiomycetes with erumpent, leathery, dark walled apothecia have been developed largely on the basis of macroscopic appearance. These authors found that the fungi traditionally placed in Encoelia and Encoelioideae to be widely distributed across eight different lineages within the Leotiomycetes, including Godroniaceae. Such a morphology has clearly evolved multiple times. The phylogentic position of A. pinicola needs confirming, as does the generic relationship between A. pinicola and A. piniphila.

A. piniphila has a macromorphology nothing like any other known Hamatocanthoscyphaceae. Interestingly, Pinus-associated Infundichalara and Xenopolyscytalum species do belong in this family. Is it possible that if CBS 197.64 was isolated from plant tissue rather than ascospores, that it is in fact a pine-associated Infundichalara or Xenopolyscytalum sp. the conidia of which were by chance in the vicinity of the Atropellis piniphila canker?

Austropezia is amongst a macroscopically enigmatic group of specimens that belong genetically in the Han et al. (2014) clade 3. Baral (in Jaklitsch et al., 2016) accepts this clade 3 in Pezizellaceae. Such a link is strongly supported if Calycina sensu Baral is added to the Han et al. (2014) analyses (based on ITS, LSU, mtSSU, RPB2), and also strong genetic support for the family in this sense in more extensive multigene analyses (unpubl. data). Baral notes some micro-morphological characters that support his concept of the family but these have not been examined for the New Zealand taxa. These taxa are macro-morphologically diverse:
- several of the New Zealand taxa have their immature apothecia covered with a clypeus-like layer, the apothecia erumpent through several irregular splits. These include D1327 'Leotiaceae crazy paving', D2488 'gen nov Chionochloa' and D 2518 'on Phormium with clypeus'.
- Several other New Zealand species are superficially Arachnopeziza-like in that they are associated with well-developed subicular hyphae (but they are genetically distinct from Arachnopeziza). These include Austropezia samuelsii, the only one of these species with a name. Note that Spooner in his discussion on Austropezia/Eriopezia, compared the subiculum of some species with a loosely constructed stroma - perhaps a similar explanation could apply here? - Other taxa such as the Han specimens Mollisina uncinata and Phialina lachnobrachyoides and D1137 have little or no subiculum, and are simple, pale coloured discs, usually with poorly developed hair-like elements.
ITS, LSU, and mtSSU gene trees for Clypeostroma together with GenBank accessions selected from BLAST search results. The two Clypeostroma spp. appear to be congeneric. Johnston (NZJBot 40: 265-268, 2002) earlier noted that based on morphology they may represent different genera. The phylogenies from the three genes support their position in the Teratosphaeriaceae. ML-like trees generated using FastTree in Geneious. [PRJ, Oct 2018]
ITS, LSU, and mtSSU gene trees for Clypeostroma together with GenBank accessions selected from BLAST search results. The two Clypeostroma spp. appear to be congeneric. Johnston (NZJBot 40: 265-268, 2002) earlier noted that based on morphology they may represent different genera. The phylogenies from the three genes support their position in the Teratosphaeriaceae. ML-like trees generated using FastTree in Geneious. [PRJ, Oct 2018]
ITS, LSU, and mtSSU gene trees for Clypeostroma together with GenBank accessions selected from BLAST search results. The two Clypeostroma spp. appear to be congeneric. Johnston (NZJBot 40: 265-268, 2002) earlier noted that based on morphology they may represent different genera. The phylogenies from the three genes support their position in the Teratosphaeriaceae. ML-like trees generated using FastTree in Geneious. [PRJ, Oct 2018]
[Unable to display]
[Unable to display]
Isotype of F. chlamydosporum var. fuscum isolated from Cynodon imported from S Africa, detected in Palmerston North (CBS 635.76, NRRL 20841; GenBank MH861016). Incorporating into ITS gene tree along with BLAST matches from type specimens suggets this is a member of the F. equiseti Species Complex, and not related to F. chlamydosporum. Note that it is placed in synonymy with F. chlamydosporum by Species Fungorum (April 2019)
Wang et al. (Myc progress 13: 781-789, 2014) described a new Hypohelion species from China. It differs from the concept of the genus as understood by Johnston et al. in inhabiting a dicotyledonous plant and in the ascomata having a well-developed lower wall. Wang et al. regarding the NZ and Chinese species as forming a monophyletic clade, but when additional taxa are included in the analysis, this relationship breaks down. The tree attached is an extract from a LSU analysis that includes the two Hypohelion spp., Coccomyces dentatus, C. lauraceus, Lophodermium tindalii, L. medium, L. brunneolum, and Terriera minus (some unpublished).

Lachnopsis sp. "blechnum"

Apothecia with very long, flexuous white hairs, common on dead Blechnum leaves leaves.

Apothecia about 0.7 mm diam., stipitate, receptacle and stipe white, densely covered with white hairs, hymenium white to pale yellow when fresh. Hairs of two lengths; short hairs stiff, about 80 x 5-6 µm; long hairs flexuous, about 400 x 3-4 µm, both thin-walled and finely rounghened all over. Excipulum of short-cylindric to subglobose cells with thickened, agglutinated to gelatinous walls. Paraphyses sublanceolate, 2 µm diam., increasing to about 4-5 µm near apex, then tapering slightly to rounded apex, extending 10 µm beyond asci. Asci more or less cylindric, tapering gradually to broadly truncate apex, walls slightly thickened at apex, small amyloid pore toward inside of wall, 8-spored. Ascospores 26-35 x 2.5-3 µm, straight, radially symmetrical, tapering to acute ends, both ends the same shape, 0-septate, hyaline.

Lachnopsis sp. "branched dark"

Small apothecia develop in groups from a branched stipe, dark hairs on a pale receptacle, forming on Dicksonia, on dead pinnae on otherwise living fronds, or in pale patches of dead fronds.

Apothecial cups less than 0.5 mm diam., forming in groups on branched stipes, with up to 15 cups arising from a common base. Hymenium and surface of receptacle pale, off-white, with stiff, black hairs on receptacle and stipe. When dry, hairs cover the hymenium. Excipulum of hyaline, short-cylindric cells with slightly thickened, agglutinated walls. Hairs 60-90 x 3-5 µm, straight, tapering to pointed apex, dark brown, roughened all over. Paraphyses 2 µm diam., taper to small rounded apex apex, about same length as asci. Asci about 30-40 x 5 µm, cylindric, apex broadly rounded, wall slightly thickened, J+ reaction faint and diffuse, extending right through the wall. Ascospores 12-18 x 1-1.5 µm, fusoid, tapering uniformly to both acute ends, radially symmetrical, straight, 0-septate.

Tiny discs, individually 0.1-0.2 mm diam., crustered in large, gregarious groups, stipes several times branched, concolorous pale yellow to yellow with short, apparently darekedning with age, short, straight hairs. On midribs of dead fronds of Cyathea.
Excipulum with short-cylindric cells, 3-5 µm diam., cell walls slightly thickened. Hairs about 40-50 x 2-3 µm, cylindric, undifferentiated to apex, finely roughened all over. Paraphyses 1.5 µm diam., undifferentiated at apex, about same length as asci. Asci 40-50 x 4-6 µm, subcylindric to subfusoid, taper gradually to more or less rounded apex, wall slightly thickened at apex, very faintly J+, croziers at base, 8-spored. Ascospores 6-9 x 1.5-2.5 µm (average 7.6 x 1.9 µm), oblong-elliptic, sometimes with widest point towards apical end, radially symmetrical, ends rounded, 0-septate.

Lachnopsis sp. "dacrydium"

Apothecia with white hairs and yellow hymnium forming on dead Dacrydium cupressinum leaves; commonly seen on dead leaves still attached to young trees

Apothecia up to 1.5 mm diam., cupulate stipitate, hymenium bright yellow, receptacle densely covered with somewhat tangled white hairs. Hymenium orange when dry. Excipulum with long-cylindric cells with slightly thickened walls. Hairs flexuous, 150-200 x 2.5-3 µm diam., undifferentiated to the apex, roughened all over. Paraphyses 2.5-3 µm diam., undifferentiated to apex, about same length as asci. Asci 70-100 x 8-9 µm, spores in the uppermost 40-50 µm, clavate to subclavate, tapering suddenly to small, subtruncate apex, wall thickened at apex with J+ pore. Ascospores (10-)14-16 x 4-6 µm, oblong-elliptic, widest point toward the upper end, tapering to rounded ends, radially symmetrical, 0-septate, hyaline.

Lachnopsis sp. "dark hymenial hairs"

A morphologically distinctive species with deeply lobed apothecia and dark brown hairs amongst the hymenial elements. DNA sequences are available for two recently collected specimens, but specimens discussed by Spooner (1987) under L. lanariceps (IMI 263462, pp. 476-478) and L. pterdiphyllum (PDD 19348, pp. 472-474), are surely the same.

Apothecia form on dead fronds of Cyathea species. Apothecia with greenish hymenium when fresh, receptacle with dark hairs, margin of cup sometimes deeply lobed to give a multi-cupped appearance, but stipe not branched. When dry, pale receptacle surface visible through the dark hairs and in places the hairs may be rubbed off to expose the pale receptacle surface. Excipulum (squash mount) of cylindric cells (approx 4-6 x 8-15 µm) with thick walls. Hairs 50-60 x 3.5-4 µm, cylindric, apex undifferentiated, roughened all over, brown vacuolar pigment. Paraphyses 1.5-2 µm diam., undifferentiated to the apex, about same length as the asci; amongst the asci and the paraphyses are elements with the same morphology as the hairs, the hair-like elements extending 30-40 µm beyond the asci. Asci 55-70 x 6-7 µm, cylindric, taper gradually to small, subtruncate apex, wall slightly thickened with tiny J+ pore that extends all the way through the wall and flaring slightly to the outside, 8-spored. Ascospores 16-21 x 2-3 µm (average 18.6 x 2.4 µm), cylindric-fusoid, more or less straight, symmetrical, tapering gradually and evenly to acute ends, 0-septate.
The morphology matches very closely that described by Spooner (1987) for IMI 263462 ex fern stem ex Queensland. He noted that this specimen was close to L. oncospermatum and L. lanariceps, but that it did not fit either species well. He speculated that the unusual morphology (compound apothecia, thick-walled excipular cells, hair-like elements in the hymenium) may reflect abnormal development in the small specimen he had available. The matching NZ specimens make this unlikely.
Known from two collections from Northland, PDD 111228 and PDD 111222, which have ITS more or less identical. ITS has a 97% BLAST match to specimens from tropical Asia that have been referred to L. oncospermatum (e.g. GenBank MK088085, KP903566). Based on Spooner 1987 and Wu et al. (Mycotaxon 67: 341-353, 1998), compared to L. oncospermatum, the Australasian species has darker hairs that lack resinous exudate, and shorter asci and ascospores. Another NZ specimens with no DNA data is the same species, PDD 82943. All three specimens are from Cyathea.

Lachnopsis sp. "mustard hairs"

A macroscopically distinctive species with long, stiff, mustard coloured hairs. A few apothecia in some collections with a branched stipe. Known only from Dicksonia

Apothecia about 0.6 mm diam., narrow stipitate (stipe sometimes branching), densely covered with long, stiff, mustard-coloured hairs. Excipular cells narrow-cylindric, about 15-25 x 6 µm, walls thin to slightly thickened, encrusted with bright yellow-brown material. Hairs 150-250 x 4 µm, brown, cylindric, not differentiated at apex, roughened all over. Paraphyses 3-4 µm diam., sublanceolate, tapering gradually to rounded apex, extending 10-20 µm beyond asci. Asci 40-55 x 4.5-5 µm, cylindric, apex rounded, wall thickened, narrow J+ pore extending all way through the wall, 8-spored. Ascospores 6-10 x 1.5-2 µm, elliptic-fusoid, uniform in shape to both ends, tapering to narrow rounded ends, radially symmetrical, 0-septate.
Does not key out in Spooner.

Lachnopsis sp. "shaggy white"

Apothecia with long, fine, flexuous, white hairs; known only on Dicksonia

Apothecia up to about 0.8 mm diam., stipitate, densely covered with long, flexuous, white hairs. Excipular cells 7-8 µm diam., more or less square in shape, with slightly thickened walls, hyaline. Hairs 150-300 x 3 µm, flexuous, undiffereniated to the apex, roughened all over. Paraphyses lanceolate, 4-5 µm diam. at a level near top of asci then tapering to narrow rounded apex, extending 20-30 µm beyond asci. Asci 40-55 x 4-5 µm, cylindric, tapering suddenly to small subtruncate apex, wall slightly thickened at apex, J+ pore extending right through the wall, flaring slightly towards the outside of the wall, 8-spored. Ascospores 8-12 x 1.5(-2) µm, cylindric, swollen near centre, ends rounded, uniform in shape to both ends, radially symmetrical, hyaline, 0-septate.
Found on pinnae of dead leaves, or on dead patches of living leaves, associated with slightly bleaching of leaves.
The ascospores are very similar in shape and size to those from PDD 108683, also with white hairs also on Dicksonia. This second species, known from a single specimen, differs phylogentically and has shorter hairs (50-100 µm).
L. brevisporum has similar long, white hairs, but lacks the lanceolate paraphyses, has slightly curved ascospores, and cylindric rather than more or less square excipular cells.

ITS tree from top ex-type BLAST matches to ICMP 21726/PDD 108768, Mycosphaerella enteleae. Results suggest this fungus perhaps represents another genus.
Austropezia is amongst a macroscopically enigmatic group of specimens that belong genetically in the Han et al. (2014) clade 3. Baral (in Jaklitsch et al., 2016) accepts this clade 3 in Pezizellaceae. Although such a link is strongly supported if Calycina sensu Baral is added to the Han et al. (2014) analyses (based on ITS, LSU, mtSSU, RPB2), there is no strong genetic support for the family in this sense in more extensive multigene analyses (unpubl. data). This lack of support could reflect inadequate taxon sampling in the multigene analyses. Baral notes some micro-morphological characters that support his concept of the family but these have not been examined for the New Zealand taxa. These taxa are macro-morphologically diverse: - several of the New Zealand taxa have their immature apothecia covered with a clypeus-like layer, the apothecia erumpent through several irregular splits. These include D1327 'Leotiaceae crazy paving', D2488 'gen nov Chionochloa' and D 2518 'on Phormium with clypeus'. - Several other New Zealand species are superficially Arachnopeziza-like in that they are associated with well-developed subicular hyphae (but they are genetically distinct from Arachnopeziza). These include Austropezia samuelsii, the only one of these species with a name. Note that Spooner in his discussion on Austropezia/Eriopezia, compared the subiculum of some species with a loosely constructed stroma - perhaps a similar explanation could apply here? - Other taxa such as the Han specimens Mollisina uncinata and Phialina lachnobrachyoides and D1137 have little or no subiculum, and are simple, pale coloured discs, usually with poorly developed hair-like elements.

Incorporating DNA sequences for ITS, LSU, TEF, ACT and RPB2 from PDD 117678 into the datasets of De Gruyter et al. (Studies in Mycology 75: 1-36, 2012, doi:10.3114/sim0004) and Ariyawansa et al. (Fungal Diversity 74: 19-51, 2015, DOI 10.1007/s13225-015-0349-2), places Rhytidiella hebes in Leptosphaeriaceae, not Cucurbitariaceae. It belongs in a clade with Plenodomus. In this analysis, if Rhytidiella is retained as a genus, this make Plenodomus paraphyletic.

Whether or not the type species of Rhytidiella, R. muriformis is phylogentically the same is not known, but morphologically it is close to R. hebes. The morphology seems to fit reasonably well with Leptosphaeriaceae apart from the large groups of closely-grouped ascomata. Cucurbitariaceae mostly have muriform ascospores.

Incorporating DNA sequences for ITS, LSU, TEF, ACT and RPB2 from PDD 117678 into the datasets of De Gruyter et al. (Studies in Mycology 75: 1-36, 2012, doi:10.3114/sim0004) and Ariyawansa et al. (Fungal Diversity 74: 19-51, 2015, DOI 10.1007/s13225-015-0349-2), places Rhytidiella hebes in Leptosphaeriaceae, not Cucurbitariaceae. It belongs in a clade with Plenodomus. In this analysis, if Rhytidiella is retained as a genus, this make Plenodomus paraphyletic.

Whether or not the type species of Rhytidiella, R. muriformis is phylogentically the same is not known, but morphologically it is close to R. hebes. The morphology seems to fit reasonably well with Leptosphaeriaceae apart from the large groups of closely-grouped ascomata. Cucurbitariaceae mostly have muriform ascospores.

Based on ITS and LSU sequences in GenBank, Sarcosoma (type species S. globosum) is polyphyletic. S. orientale (at least from a New Zealand specimen) is in a clade with Plectania and Plectania-like species, but on a long branch. It is not altogether surprising that it is genetically distinct from S. globosum - macroscopically very similar but soil-inhabiting, and possibly mycorrhizal (see http://iucn.ekoo.se/iucn/species_view/120549/). S. orientale is a wood-inhabiting saprobe.
[Unable to display]
Based on ITS sequences, Trichoglossum appears to be polyphyletic, most Southern Hemisphere specimens with DNA sequences available (blue in the attached image) falling into a clade distant from Trichoglossum sensu stricto (green in the attached image), but both clades do occur in New Zealand (e.g. PDD 116702, red in the attached image, is in Trichoglossum s.s.).

Click to collapse Cited scientific names Info

Click to collapse Metadata Info

c39901cb-fbc3-4b7f-a107-e65edcf81181
reference
Names_Fungi
3 August 2011
Click to go back to the top of the page
Top