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Bell, A.E. 1983: Dung Fungi. Victoria University Press.

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Bell, A.E. 1983: Dung Fungi. Victoria University Press.
Book

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Discomycetes on Dung

1
Apothecia with a fringe of stiff hairs
2
Apothecia without a fringe of stiff hairs
4
2
Apothecia ± colourless or at most fuliginous, circa 0.3 mm. diam. containing very few (circa 1-3) large, multisporous asci
Apothecia pale luteous, orange or reddish-scarlet, at least 0.3 mm. diam. and usually much larger, containing many (circa 50+) asci, each containing 8 ascospores
3
3
Apothecial hairs hyaline without cross-walls
Apothecial hairs brown, multi-septate with large rooting bases
4
Asci each containing 8 ascospores which are firmly cemented together to form a single unit and remain as such when released from the ascus
Ascospores 8 (or more) per ascus remaining free from one another both within the ascus and upon ejection
5
5
Ascospores rose, vinaceous or purple at maturity
Ascospores remaining hyaline at maturity
6
6’
Apothecia not orange or brown
10
Apothecia orange or brown (i.e. umber to dark brick)
7
7
Apothecia orange
8
Apothecia some shade of brown (i.e. umber to dark brick)
9
8
Mature ascospores smooth walled, ellipsoidal, ascus tip not blue in MeIzer's rea gent
Mature ascospores punctate, ellipsoidal, ascus tip (or whole ascus) blue in MeIzer's reagent
9
Apothecia (> 1 mm. diam.), stalked, margin of cup frequently torn, ascus tip staining blue in MeIzer's reagent, paraphyses with non-inflated apices
Apothecia (± 0.25 mm. diam sessile, margin of cup entire, ascus not blue in Melzer's reagent, paraphyses with strongly inflated apices
10
Apothecia (circa 0.2-0.3 mm. diam.) semi-immersed in dung, with a semi-transparent to yellowish excipulum through which can be seen 1-6 large, multi-spored asci
Apothecia at least 0.5 mm. diam., superficially placed on dung surface, excipulum opaque, apothecium containing numerous asci
11
11
Apothecia white, short stalked, margin of excipulum with a fringe of short, blunt, flexuous white hairs. Ascus opening by an irregular tear stopped short by a thickened ring, each ascus containing 32 or more fusiform hyaline ascospores
Apothecia not white, or, if white, not fringed with hairs. Ascospores not fusiform, or, if fusiform, bearing prominent warts
12
12
Apothecia very pale luteous, excipulum with a (frequently torn) membranaceous margin tinged livid-vinaceous
Apothecia variously coloured but emarginate
13
13
Apothecia rosy-vinaceous or rosy-buff
Apothecia white or with a yellowish tinge (i.e. pale luteous, saffron, buff, straw)
14
14
Young apothecia dolabriform in shape with hymenium enclosed during early develop ment
Young apothecia discoid with hymenium exposed during early development
15
15
Ascospores punctate
Ascospores smooth

Ascobolus on Dung

1
Ascospore ornamentation consisting of anastomosing rows of crevices ± parallel to the long axis of the spore
2
Ascospore ornamentation as discrete warts, ridges at right angles to long axis of the spore, or ascospores without ornamentation
7
2
Majority of ascospores <20 um long
3
Majority of ascospores >20 um long
5
3
Apothecia associated with vegetation (e.g. mosses, liverworts) which may itself be growing upon dung, ascospores 17-19 X 9-10 [15.5-22X8-11.5] um
Apothecia on dung and not associated with green plants
4
4
Apothecia primrose/straw coloured with a crenulate (wavy) margin, ascospores 12-15 X 8-10 [(8)9.5-15(16) x (5)6-8] um
Apothecia amber/ochreous, no crenulate margin, ascospores 13-15 X 8-10 [12.5-14.5 x (6.5)7 8.5] um
5
Ascospores 30-32x(9)13-15 [(18)20-36(39)X(9)11-14(16)] um
Ascospores mostly <30 um
6
6
Mature ascospores with a loose episporium which gives the spores a blistered appearance, 21-25 x 10- 12 [19-22(25) X 9.5-13] um
Mature ascospores with a close fitting episporium which is not blistered, ascospores 22-26x11-13 [(16)19-28(32)x(9)10-14(16)] um
7
Ascospore ornamentation as scattered warts or ridges
8
Ascospores devoid of ornamentation apart from an occasional fissure in the episporium or small granules
11
8
Ascospore ornamentation consisting of parallel ridges at right angles to the long axis of the spore, spores 13-14 x 7-8 [13-14.5 X 7.5-8.5] um
Ascospore ornamentation consisting of coarse or fine warts which may be regularly scattered over the spores or confined to irregular bands around the spores
9
9
Ascospore ornamentation as coarse warts which are arranged in irregular caps and bands around the spores, spores 29-33 X 17-20 [(27.5)30-33.5(35) X 16-18] um
Ascospore ornamentation as coarse or fine warts evenly distributed over entire surface
10
10
Ascospore ornamentation as fine warts, spores 18-22x9-10 [18.5-21X10-11.5] um
Ascospore ornamentation as coarse warts, spores 25-29 X 14-17 [(25.5)26.5-30.5(32) X (14.5) 16-17.5] um
11
Ascospores ellipsoidal, episporium smooth for the most part although a few scattered raised granules may be present, spores 23-24X 10-13 [(17.5)19-23(24)x 10-12(13)] um
Ascospores ellipsoidal/oblong, episporium smooth or a few fissures may be present, spores 60-80x34-42 [(35)58-71(81)x(24)28-36(40)] um

Cheilymenia on Dung

1
Apothecia orange, scarlet or red
2
Apothecia pale luteous
4
2
Apothecia with two kinds of hairs: long unbranched hairs with rooting bases, together with stellate hairs Ascospores 17-20 x 10- 11 [ 16-20.5 X 9-121 um
Apothecia with only one type of hair which is unbranched with either rooting or bulbous base
3
3
Apothecia orange with pale margin, hairs with bulbous bases, ascospores 24-29 X 15-17 [21-27.3 x 12-16] um
Apothecia scarlet to red, emarginate, hairs with rooting bases, ascospores 17-19X10-11 [ 16-21 X 8-11] um
4
Hairs confined to apothecial margin, ascospores 8-12X4-6 um
Hairs scattered evenly over the excipulum, ascospores 12-16 X 6-8 um

Coprotus on Dung

1
Asci containing 16 ascospores, spores 12-13X7-8 [11-16X8-10] um
Asci containing 8 ascospores
2
2
Majority of ascospores < 10 um long
3
Majority of ascospores > 10 um long
5
3
Apothecia saffron/apricot, paraphyses with curved and sometimes forked tips, ascospores 7-8x4-5 [8-10.5x5-6.5] um
Apothecia white or partially pale luteous
4
4
Paraphyses with strongly hooked apices, ascospores 6-8 X 3-5 [7.5-9 X 4.5-5.5] um
Paraphyses not strongly hooked at their apices, ascospores 7-8X4 [8-10x5-6.5] um
5
Paraphyses with strongly inflated apices, ascospores 10-11X5.7 [9-15X6.5-9.5] um
Paraphyses not strongly inflated at their apices
6
6
Apothecia straw/yellow, ascospores 11-14X6-9 [12-14X6-8.5] um
Apothecia pale luteous/white/very pale buff
7
7
Ascospores 12-18X10-13 [14-18x7.5-11.5] um
Ascospores < 14 um long and < 10 wide
8
8
Asci 75-90 um long, spores 12-14 X 7-9 [12-13.5 x 5.8] um
Asci 50-60 um long, spores 9-14X5-8 um

Lasiobolus on Dung

2
Apothecial hairs up to 1 mm long, ascospores narrowly ellipsoidal, 20-26x7-10 [(15)17-22(24)x(5.5)9.0-12.0(13.5)] um
Apothecial hairs <0.5 mm. long, broadly ellipsoidal, 17-19x9-11 [13-18 X 7.5-11.5] um

Saccobolus on Dung

1
Apothecia some shade of yellow
2
Apothecia white, white tinged lilac, or pale olivaceous grey
4
2
Mature ascospores, rose smooth walled, ellipsoidal with truncated ends, 26-28x11-14 [(19)22-29x8.5-14.5(16)] um
Mature ascospores rose/rosy buff, ellipsoidal with truncated ends but mostly <20 um long
3
3
Apothecia a clear shining yellow, ascospores punctate, 13-15X6-7 [16-22(23)x7.5-9(9.5)] um
Apothecia fulvus, ascospores smooth walled, 12-14X6-8 [(10) 11.5-13.5(14.5)x5.5-6.5(7.5)] um
4
Mature ascospores smooth walled, olivaceous grey, 15-17x7-9 [13-21.5(23.5)x6.5-9.5(10)] um
Mature ascospores with medium to coarse warts, olivaceous grey or rose
5
5
Ascospores olivaceous grey with large warts over entire surface, spores 15-18x7-10 [ 14-16 X 8-9] um
Ascospores rose coloured, with medium sized warts distributed in patches only on spore surface, spores 11-14 X 5-7 [10.5-14 X 7-9] um

Thecotheus on Dung

1
Apothecia pale luteous, ascospores ellipsoidal with acute apices evenly covered with rough warts, 31-38 x 15-17 [30-42 X 15-18] um
Apothecia rosy/vinaceous to rosy/buff, ascospores ellipsoidal with blunt apices, smooth walled, 19-21 x 8-10 [20-22 X 8- 10] um

Thelebolus on Dung

1
Apothecia circa 0.2 mm., semi-transparent to yellowish in colour, partially submerged, asci containing very many ascospores
2
Apothecia circa 0.25 mm., umber to dark brick in colour, superficially sited on substrate, asci each containing 8 ascospores 4-6x2-3[6-7x3-3.5] um, paraphyses with much inflated apices
2’
Apothecia containing one globose ascus which itself contains very many ascospores each approx. 6X4 [6X4] um
Apothecia containing approx. 6 subglobose asci each containing many ascospores approx. 5 X 8 um

Plectomycetes on Dung

1
Cleistothecia covered with circinate (coiled) hairs
2
Cleistothecia with a crown of straight hairs, asci 4-spored, ascospores circa 6-8 X 4-6 um
2
Cleistothecia reddish/brown (vinaceous/brick using Rayner's Colour Chart), asci globose each containing 8 unicellular, globose, spiny ascospores circa 3X3 um
Cleistothecia black, asci broadly clavate each containing 8 unicellular, lemon-shaped hyaline ascospores circa 14-18 X 10- 13 um

Arnium on Dung

1
Asci containing 8 ascospores
2
Asci containing 64 or more ascospores each 9-22 X 11- 13 [18-22 x 12-14.5] um with a single cauda at each end of the ascospores. On lagomorph (rabbit & hare) dung
2
Ascospores with one apical germ pore (sometimes difficult to observe), spores ellipsoidal with blunt ends, spores maturing slowly 39-53 x 22-27 [(43) 47-57 X 24-30] um, upper cauda channelled. On cervid (deer) dung
Ascospores with two germ pores situated one at either end of each spore, spores ellipsoidal with subacute ends, 37-48 x 19-24 [(31)35-52(55) x 18-25] um, with a single cauda at either end each covering a germ pore. On cow and sheep dung

Cercophora & Podospora on Dung

1
Ascospores remaining one-celled, hyaline and usually vermiform (or at the most weakly clavate) to a late stage in development, caudae lash-like
Hyaline stage of ascospores always conspicuously clavate, spores soon becoming 2-celled, upper cell developing pigment, lower cell (pedicel) remaining hyaline. Caudae variously shaped

Cercophora on Dung

1
Subapical globulus absent, hyaline state of ascospores +- clavate
2
Subapical globulus present or absent, hyaline state of ascospores vermiform and sigmoid
3
2
Dark cell of ascospores 15-17X7-8 [14-18X7-9] um, pedicel approx. 30X4 [27-36x3] um
Dark cell of ascospore 24-29x11-15 um pedicel 19-22X5-6 um
3
Subapical globulus absent
4
Subapical globulus present
5
4
Dark cell of ascospores 15-17X7-8 [14-18X7-9] um, pedicel approx. 30x4 [27-36x3] um
Dark cell of ascospores 21-29X8-10 [17-25x8.5-13] um, pedicel 40-60X5-7 [30-50] um
5
Subapical globulus spherical and minutely spiny, perithecial neck with tubercules, dark cell of ascospores 18-23 x 7-8 [15-21 X 9-11] um pedicel 33-41 x 4-5 [35-44 x 4-5] um
Subapical globulus spherical and smooth, perithecial neck ridged, hyaline state of ascospores inclined to be persistent, 67-84 X 8- 10 um

Podospora on Dung

1
Perithecia superficial or only partially submerged in the substrate having a leathery (=coriaceous) texture over which are ± evenly scattered short, blunt, hyaline-tipped hairs
2
Perithecia superficial, partially submerged, or totally submerged in the substrate, having a membranaceous texture. Hairs, if present, are as bristles or as agglutinated groups of cells, more dense towards the neck of the perithecia
3
2
Ascospores biseriate, 8 per ascus, dark cell 31-37 X 15-16 um pedicel 7-9 X 5-7 um, caudae one at each end of ascospore, lash-like and channelled
Ascospores biseriate, 8 per ascus, dark cell 46-62X27-30 um, pedicel ±30-40X5 um and broad-ended (=obclavate), caudae lash-like and striate at each end of ascospore
3
Perithecial hairs absent
4
Perithecial hairs present as minute tubercles, stiff bristles or as agglutinated fan-shaped groups of cells
14
4
Asci containing more than 8 ascospores
5
Asci containing 8 ascospores
7
5
Asci broadly clavate/subglobose containing 128-256 (or more) ascospores, dark cell 16-19 X 12-13 um, pedicel ± 10 X 2 um
Asci containing 16 ascospores
6
6
Dark cell of ascospore 29-35 X 16-20 um, pedicel ± 5-10 x2 um, caudae very difficult to see
Dark cell of ascospore 32-40X21-24 um, pedicel ±40 um long, apical cauda fan or strap shaped, striate, several small supernumerary caudae attached to upper portion of pedicel
7
Dark cell of ascospore 40-47 X 20-23 um, pedicel ± 21-33 X 5 um, whole ascospore surrounded by a gelatinous sheath
Combination not as above
8
8
Apical caudae numerous as a tuft arising from dark cell
9
Ascospores with a single elongate apical cauda
11
9
Ascospores with small supernumerary caudae attached to upper part of pedicel in addition to apical and basal caudae
10
Ascospores without such supernumerary caudae, dark cell of ascospore 37-43 X 21-23 um, pedicel 32-38 X 5 um, with a tuft of 4 apical caudae and 4 basal caudae
10
. Dark cell of ascospore 47-54X23-30 um, pedicel ±50-57X5-7 um, apical cauda lash-like and channelled, surrounded at base by a tuft of small caudae sprouting from the top of the dark cell. Supernumerary caudae are attached to upper portion of pedicel, and a single, lash like, channelled basal cauda present
Dark cell of ascospore 35-40 X 17-20 um, pedicel as long as or slightly longer than dark cell, apical cauda fan or strap-shaped, striate or channelled, several small supernumerary caudae attached to upper portion of pedicel
11
Ascospores uniseriate, dark cell 35-38X26-30 um, (easily shattered under. coverslip), pedicel +- 8 x 2 um
Ascospores biseriate and having a different morphology to the above
12
12
Dark cell of ascospore 45-70X25-35 um, pedicel ±25X8 um, caudae swelling in water (visible in Indian ink mounting medium)
Majority of dark cells of ascospores shorter than 50 um in length
13
13
Dark cell of ascospores 37-39 X 23-32 um, pedicel ± 38-45 X 7 um. Pedicel sometimes septate, apical cauda single and channelled, basal cauda lash-like. Developed on old dung
Dark cell of ascospore 40-48 X 21-24 um, pedicel ± 5 X 2 um, apical appendage lash-like and channelled, basal appendage lash-like
14
Perithecial hairs dark, flexuous and generally scattered over the perithecium including the region of the ostiole
15
Perithecial hairs either as stiff, dark bristles ± confined to the ostiolar region, or as agglutinated fan-shaped groups of cells the bulk of which are concentrated around the ostiolar region
16
15
Dark cell of ascospore 37-43 x 21-23 um, pedicel 32-38 X 5 um with a tuft of 4 apical caudae and 4 basal caudae
Dark cell of ascospore 24-27 X 10- 13 um, pedicel ± 13 X 4 um (soon collapsing), upper and basal caudae lash-like
16
Perithecial hairs as stiff dark bristles frequently aggregated on one side of the ostiole
17
Perithecial hairs strap or fan-shaped groups of swollen agglutinated cells, usually aggregated more towards the ostiolar region of the perithecium and sometimes confined to this area
24
17
Bristles with blunt ends, very small, not seen under a dissecting (X5) lens, dark cell of ascospores 35-40 X 17-20 um, pedicel as long or slightly longer than the dark cell, apical cauda fan or strap-shaped, striate or channelled with several small supernumerary caudae attached to upper portion of pedicel
Bristles with pointed ends and clearly seen under a dissecting (X5) lens
18
18’
Asci containing >4 ascospores
19
Asci containing 4 ascospores, dark cell 39-41 X 19-25 um, pedicel ± 25 X 5 um, apical cauda single and lash-like, basal cauda single and lash-like
19
Asci containing 8 ascospores
20
Asci containing >8 ascospores
22
20
Dark cell of ascospores slightly flattened on one side, 39-42 X 19-21 um, pedicel 13-18 X 6-8 um often skewed to one side and tapering to an abrupt point, apical cauda broadly tapering and attached laterally to dark cell, basal cauda surrounding pedicel and extending beyond it, cylindrical
Dark cell of ascospore +- symmetrical
21
21
Dark cell of ascospore 24-27X 10-13 um, pedicel ± 13 X4 um (soon collapsing), with single lash-like apical and basal caudae
Dark cell of ascospore 34-41 X 20-24 um, pedicel ± 30 X 5 um, (soon collapsing), multiple apical and basal caudae and a hyaline jacket enclosing both dark cell and pedicel. Ascospores some times reversed in asci (i.e. pedicel nearest ascus tip)
22
Asci each containing 16 ascospores, dark cell 29-35X16-20 um, pedicel 5-10X2 um
Asci each containing >16 ascospores
23
23
Asci clavate containing 128 ascospores, dark cell 20-23 X 12-13 um, pedicel ± 12 X 4 um
Asci broadly clavate/subglobose containing 128-256 (or more?) ascospores, dark cell 16-19 x 12-13 um, pedicel ± 10 X 2 um
24
Asci each containing 4 ascospores, dark cell 21-25 X 12-15 um, pedicel ± 7 X 2 um, apical caudae lash-like
Asci each containing 8 ascospores
25
25
Agglutinated hairs forming a prominent radiating crown around the ostiole, dark cell of ascospores 34-40x15-23 um, pedicel ±10X2 um, apical and basal caudae single and lash like
Agglutinated hairs or tubercules more evenly scattered over the perithecium although showing some tendency to aggregate towards the ostiole
26
26
Ascospores obliquely uniseriate, dark cell 20-23 X 14-16 um, pedicel -- 8 X 2 um
Ascospores uniseriate or biseriate, mostly >23 um long
27
27
Ascospores uniseriate, dark cell 35-38X26-30 um, pedicel ±8X2 um
Ascospores biseriate, dark cell narrower than above in relation to length, or. dark cell shorter
28
28
Dark cell of ascospore 23-28 X 14-18 um, pedicel ± 10 X 2 um
Dark cell of ascospores 40-48X21-24 um, pedicel ±5X2 um

Chaetomium on Dung

1
Ascospores triangular in one view, 7-9 x 5-7 [8-9.9 X 4.5-6.5] um, perithecia covered with dark branched hairs some of which are slightly curved (uncinate) at the tips
Ascospores pointed ellipsoidal or lemon shaped
2
2
Ascospores ellipsoidal with sharp (acute) ends, 13-16x8-9[6-12x5.6-9] um, perithecium crowned with a dense cluster of tight, regularly coiled, hairs
Ascospores lemon shaped
3
3
Ascospores 5-7X5-6 [8-9X5.5-6.4] um, perithecia clothed with branched and unbranched hairs
Ascospores 10-12x8-9 [9-13x6-9.5] um, perithecia clothed with unbranched hairs some of which are loosely and irregularly coiled

Coniochaeta, Poronia and Hypocopra on dung

1
Perithecia embedded in the flat apical disc of an enormous (± 1 cm. high) hairy column of fungal tissue (stroma) which arises from the dung surface. Asexually produced spores (conidia) borne on easily fragmenting hyphae which clothe the sides of the stroma)
Perithecia not embedded in flat disc atop a column of fungal tissue (stroma)
2
2
Perithecia superficial or semi-immersed in substrate, at least partly covered with dark, septate bristles. Ascospores discoid/broadly ellipsoid with an elongated germ slit along the narrow face, hyaline sheath may be present around each ascospore, but is difficult to demonstrate
Perithecia more or less totally immersed in substrate, ostiole only protruding. Perithecia devoid of bristles. Ascospores dark, ellipsoidal or slightly flattened on one side, surrounded by a substantial hyaline sheath which is easily seen, particularly in stained preparations of the ascospores inside the asci

Coniochaeta on Dung

1
Asci containing 64(128?) dark, discoid/broadly ellipsoidal ascospores 7-10X5-6x4-5 [7-9 X 4-7] um
Asci containing 8 ascospores only
2
2
Ascospores dark, uniseriate, discoid, 8-9X6-7X4-5 [7-9x6-8x5-6] um
Ascospores >10 um
3
3
Ascospores dark, discoid/broadly elliptical, 12-15x10-13x7 [11-14x8-12x6-8] um
Ascospores dark, discoid/broadly elliptical, 18-20 x 14-16 x 8-9 [16-23 x 13-19 x 8-15] um

Hypocopra on Dung

1
Ascospores frequently with one flattened side (asymmetrical), uniseriate, 'dark, ellipsoidal/ obovoid, 25-29X 11-13 [(20)22-24(25)X 10-12] um
Ascospores symmetrical
2
2
Ascospores uniseriate, dark, ellipsoidal, 24-28 X 13-15 [(22)23-29 x (11) 12-14] um, a dark patch surrounding the ostiole on the dung surface
Ascospores uniseriate, dark, ellipsoidal, 43-46 X 18-21 [3 8-48(50) x (19)20-24] um

Delitschia and Trichodelitschia on Dung

1
Ascospores 2-celled, each cell with a circular germ pore at the distal end, cells easily separable at maturity, ascospores 19-21 X 6-7 [18-20.5 X 6] um
Ascospores 2-celled, each cell with an elongated germ slit parallel to the long axis of the ascospore, genus Delitschia
2
2
Cross-wall of ascospores slightly/very oblique, cells separating readily at cross-wall
3
Cross wall of ascospores horizontal, cells not readily separating at cross-wall
4
3
Cross-wall slightly oblique, ascospores constricted at this point, distal ends of ascospores a blunt point, spores 55-68 X 16-18 [45-55 X (13)14-16] um
Cross-wall of ascospores very oblique, cells readily separating at this point, in some instances each cell appearing as a separate 1-celled ascospore, spores 44-55 X 25-31 [35-50 X 15-18] um
4
Ascospores ellipsoidal, 9-12 X 4-6 [10-12(14) X 5-6] um
Ascospores ellipsoidal, >20 um long
5
5
Perithecia hairy, ascospores constricted at cross-wall, distal ends of spores bluntly rounded, 47-58x21-24 [(36)40-52x(16)19-22] um
Perithecia without hairs, ascospores not constricted at cross-wall, distal ends of each spore bluntly pointed, 59-70x22-35 [47-65(75)x(25)29-35(37)] um

Selinia on Dung

1
Ascospores 58-65x24-30 [48-64x20-26] um; on cow dung
Ascospores 31-40x 15-19 um; on wallaby dung

Sordaria on Dung

1
Ascospores ovoid, subglobose or sometimes slightly obovoid, 14-25 x 9-16, [(17) 18-24 x (9.5) 10-131 um
Ascospores mostly over 21 um long
2
2
Ascospores ellipsoidal, mostly within the range 23-30 x 15-16, [(21) 23-29(30) x 14.5-17(18)] um
Ascospores ellipsoidal, mostly within the range 28-38 x 16-19, [(26)28-35 x (17)18-22] um

Sporormia and Sporormiella on Dung

1
Ascospores aggregated into a single cylindrical truncated bundle in the centre of ascus, ascospores 16-celled, cells without germ slits, ascospores 37-40X15-4 um
Ascospores biseriately or irregularly arranged in the ascus ascospore cells with germ slits
2
2
Ascospores composed of 8 cells, 40-50 x 8-11 [(37)40-48(50) X 7-8] um
Ascospores composed of 4 cells
3
3
Asci clavate gently tapering at the lower end to form the stipe (stalk), end cells of each ascospore bluntly pointed, 57-65 x 12-15 [56-63 X 12-14.5] um
Asci tapering abruptly below to form a button-like stipe
4
4
Ascospores cylindrical, 33-36X5-6 [28-32(34)x5-6] um
Ascospores mostly >36 um long and mostly >6 um wide
5
5
Ascospores 36-44x6-8 [38-46x7-8] um
Majority of ascospores >45 um long
6
6
Ascospores 47-58x9-11 [48-59X9.5-11.5] um
Ascospores 5 5-67 x 11- 14 [60-66 x 10- 13] um

Basidiomycetes on Dung

1
Fruit-body like a 'toadstool' consisting of a cap (=pileus) with gills supported by a central stalk (=stipe)
3
Fruit-body like a 'birds nest' or a column surmounted by a tentacle-like head
2
2
Fruit-body like a 'birds nest' containing 'eggs
Fruit-body a column surmounted by a tentacle-like head covered with slime
3
Cap white, or pale mouse grey tinged cinnamon with a mealy or shaggy texture, tending to undergo autodigestion at maturity with discharge of spores in an inky fluid; spore print black. Coprinus
7
Cap not as above; spore print purplish brown or amber
4
4
Cap a shining pure yellow to amber; spores brown, broadly ellipsodial 9-12X5-8 um
Cap ochreous to amber in colour
5
5
Cap a shining amber with flocculose (=woolly) margin; spore print purplish brown spores individually brown, ellipsoidal, 9-11X6-8 [11.5-13X7-9] um
Cap campanulate, ochre, drying pale luteous; spore print amber
6
6
Spores 8-9X5-6 um
Spores 17-20 X 10- 13 um
7
Majority of spores < 10 um long
8
Majority of spores > 10 um long
12
8
Spores rounded-angular to subglobose in one view, narrow-oblong in another
9
Spores ellipsoidal in all views
10
9
Cap pale mouse grey tinged cinnamon, very woolly textured when young; cap cells globose and minutely punctate; spores brown, rounded-angular in one view, 7-8X6-7 um, narrow oblong (4-5 um wide) in the other view
Cap orange to sienna especially at apex, covered with smooth walled, hyaline, globose cap cells; spores brown, subglobose in one view, 8-9X7-9 um ellipsoidal (±4 um wide) in the other view
10
Cap pale mouse grey which may be partially or completely hidden by thick covering of pale amber to cinnamon tomentum consisting of pale amber filamentous and globose cells with punctate walls; spores brown, ellipsoidal, 5-7 X 3 [7-9 X 3.5-5] um
Cap white to very pale mouse grey with a white tomentum consisting of either globose punctate cells or smooth walled branched filaments
11
11
Cap cells hyaline, globose, punctate; spores brown, 7-8 x 3-5 [7-9 X 3.4-4.5] um
Cap cells hyaline, with smooth walled branched filaments; spores brown 6-8 X 4 [6.5-7.5 X 5] um
12
Cap campanulate, white, with fine mealy texture; cap cells hyaline, globose and smooth walled; spores brown, rounded-angular in one view 16 X 10 um
Cap pale mouse grey or tinged amber or cinnamon; spores ellipsoidal in all views
13
13
Cap pale mouse grey, shaggy due to a covering of hyaline pointed filaments with smooth walls; spores 10-18X6-9 [11-14x6-7] um
Cap white with at least some part tinged amber or cinnamon (especially the apex), with very fine bristles and sometimes a woolly texture due to cap cells, which are pale cinnamon, globose, (with or without elongated projections) smooth walled or finely punctate; spores 11-14X7 [ 11- 14 X 5-6.5] um

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1cb0e235-36b9-11d5-9548-00d0592d548c
reference
Names_Fungi
22 March 2019
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